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Lecture 2

PSYC100 13/14 Week 22.docx

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PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 22: Social Psychology Part 1 Pearson Online: The Self - Social cognition o Perceptions, thoughts, and beliefs an individual may have about other groups, people, or situations - Self-concept o The sum total of beliefs/perceptions one has about oneself  Cognitive evaluation; how one THINKS about oneself - Self- schema o Beliefs that guide how one processes self-relevant information - Schematicity o The importance of particular self-schemas to a person’s self-concept Self-Knowledge - Affective forecasting o Predicting how one would feel about a future emotional event o Focalism  Failure to consider that other things in life impact our future emotions o Duration bias  Overestimate time required to recover from a negative event o Impact bias  Overestimate the effect that a situation will have on our lives - Self-perception theory o When internal cues are difficult to interpret, people determine their feelings by observing their own behaviour - Looking-glass self o Other people serve as mirrors in which we see ourselves - Social comparison theory o People evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others Self-Esteem - Affective, emotionally related component of the self; reflects feelings of approval and acceptance of ourselves o Emotional; how one FEELS about oneself - Sociometer theory o Self-esteem evolved as a way to measure interpersonal relationships; reflects how we think others view us - Terror management theory o Human behaviour is motivated by fear of death; higher self-esteem provides a buffer against potential fear and anxiety Self-Enhancement - Self-handicapping o Engaging in behaviours designed to sabotage one’s own performance to provide an excuse for failure - Basking in reflected glory o Associating with others who are successful to increase self-esteem - Cutting off reflected failure o Psychologically distancing oneself from others who have failed to protect self- esteem - Downward social comparisons o Defensive tendencies to compare oneself with others who are worse off Self-Serving Cognitions - General beliefs about the self that serve to enhance self-esteem - Better-than-average effect o People rate themselves as better than the average person - Unrealistic optimism o People are unrealistically optimistic about their future outlook - Self-serving attributions o Tendency to take personal credit for success and provide external excuses for failure Self-Discrepancy Theory - Self-esteem and emotional states are determined by the match or mismatch between how we see ourselves and how we want to see ourselves o Actual self o Ought self (should) o Ideal self (want) Attributions - Explanations for the causes of our own and others’ behaviour - Personal (internal): behaviour due to intrinsic quality - Situational (external): behaviour as a result of the social context - Covariation principle o Developed by Harold Kelley o Attribution theory in which people make causal inferences to explain certain behaviour o Three kinds of covariation information:  Consistency • Regular behaviour = high consistency  Consensus • People reacting the same way to stimulus = high consensus  Distinctiveness • Person reacts differently in other situations = high distinctiveness o High consistency, consensus, and distinctive ness = situational attribution o High consistency; low consensus and distinctiveness = personal attributions Attribution Errors - Fundamental attribution error o Tendency to overestimate the impact of personal factors and underestimate the impact of situational factors when attributing the causes of another’s behaviour o Low in collectivist cultures; higher in individualistic cultures - Knowledge-across-situations hypothesis o People judge the behaviour of those they know well to be more dependent on the situation than the behaviour of those they know less well - Visual-orientation hypothesis o We attribute behaviour to personality differently for others than ourselves because we see the environment only through our own eyes, but focus on other people and ignore the environment Heuristics - Information-processing rules of thumb; mental shortcuts used to make decisions - Can introduce biases into decision making process and decrease accuracy - Representative heuristic o Used to judge membership in a group based on a typical example/ prototype of that group - Availability heuristic o Used to judge the likelihood/ frequency of events based on information available in memory - Anchoring heuristic o Used to estimate value/ size based on a suggested starting point Impression Formation - Process by which one combines information about a person to arrive at an overall evaluation of that individual or a set of beliefs about his/her attributes - Factors o Person positivity bias  Tendency to evaluate individuals more favourably than groups o Trait negativity bias  Tendency to be more influenced by negative information than positive information o Primacy effect  Tendency for information that is presented earlier to be more influential than information that is presented later - Process o Initial categorization  Automa
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