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Lecture 2

PSYC 100 13/14 Week 23.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Rana Pishva

Week 23: Social Psychology Part 2 Prosocial Behaviour - Promotes social functioning, group cohesion, etc. - Empathy o Emotional concern for another’s well being o Affected by perspective taking, perception of others’ needs, valuing others’ welfare Conformity and Obedience - Conformity o Adjusting one’s attitudes and behaviours to coincide with a group norm o Reasons  Informational influence • Believing others are credible and have more information  Normative influence • Fearing the consequences of deviation from group norms o Types  Private • Person experiences changes in both overt behaviours and beliefs • Produced by informational influence  Public • Person demonstrates superficial change in behaviour only • Produced by normative influence - Obedience o Compliant behaviour produced by the commands of authority o Milgram’s Findings and Limitations  Obedience depends on: • Proximity to authority figure and victim • Legitimacy of authority figure • Presence of dissenting allies • Use of incremental requests • Personal responsibility Compliance - Change in behaviour elicited by a request from another individual who is not an authority figure - Principles of influence o Consistency and commitment  Compliance modifies our attitudes and self-concept, so we are motivated to act consistently in the future; people feel inclined to follow through with commitments o Reciprocity  Obligation to repay favours even when they are unsolicited o Social proof  Inclination to follow the lead of others o Liking  Inclination to comply based on how much we like someone o Authority  Power of authority can be extremely influential o Scarcity  People are more sensitive to losses than to gains; rare items are more valued - Foot-in-the-door technique o Influencer prefaces real request by first getting a person to comply with a smaller request; effective because of consistency - Low-balling technique o Influencer secures agreement with a request but then increase the size of that request by revealing hidden costs; effective because of commitment - Door-in-the-face technique o Influencer prefaces real request with a request so large that it is likely to be rejected, making the real request seem reasonable; effective because of reciprocity and perceptual contrast  Perceptual contrast: when seeing two different things in sequence, we tend to see the second one as more different from the first than it actually is - That’s-not-all technique o Influencer makes an initial request and increases its attractiveness by offering additional benefits or decreasing its apparent size; effective because of reciprocity and perceptual contrast Pro-social Behaviour - Pro-social behaviour o Behaviour intended to help others - Bystander Apathy o The effect whereby the presence of others inhibits helping - Pluralistic ignorance o False impression of what other people are thinking, or how they are responding; occurs when people think their own thoughts are different from those around them - Diffusion of responsibility o Belief that other people will or should take responsibility for helping someone in need Interpersonal Relationships - First Attraction o Proximity  More likely to get to know people who are physically close o Familiarity  Repeated contact generally increases liking o Physical attractiveness  Attractive people generally possess
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