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PSYC100 Lectures.docx

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Queen's University
PSYC 100
Ingrid Johnsrude

PSYC100 Week 6 Lecture 10/17/2012 5:30:00 AM The Treatment of Psychological Disorders Types of Assessment;  Direct Observations  Clinical Interviews  Questionnaires  Cognitive/ Neuropsychological tests  Medical Imaging (eg. fMRI, EEG) History of treatment  Early treatment resembled torture  Traditional forms of psychotherapy; o Psychoanalysis o Humanist o Gestalt Behavioural Therapies;  Maladaptive behavior is the problem; need to change this behavior directly  Most techniques based on operant and classical conditioning o Operant conditioning: behavior affected by consequences (can lead to increase/decrease of that behavior) o Classical conditioning: association between stimulus and natural response transferred to another stimulus (eg. Watching a sad movie, crying, and eating popcorn. Body identifies crying with eating popcorn) OPERANT CONDITIONG: Reinforcement of adaptive behaviours (eg. Token economies)  (Big Bang theory example, with Sheldon and Penny with chocolate) Modelling: imitate the successful behaviors of other (note: not really ―operant conditioning‖, but textbook places it here). Extinction of maladaptive behaviours; remove previously available positive reinforcers. Punishment of maladaptive behaviours: administer negative consequences for undesirable behaviour. CLASSICAL CONDITIONG: Systematic desensitization: pair increasingly feared stimuli (eg. Spiders) with a relaxation response Flooding: directly and fully exposed to fearful stimulus until fear dissipates Aversion Therapy: pleasant but undesirable stimulus (eg. Alcohol) paired with an aversive response (eg. Vomiting) ABC‘S of Emotion:  Antecedent (event)------ Beliefs-------Consequences (eg. Emotions) o Developed by Albert Alex Cognitive Distortions;  Polarized thinking (―Black and White‖ Thinking) o (If I don‘t get 100% on the test im a total failure)  Overgeneralizations o (My first boyfriend dumped me, no one will ever love me)  Personalization o (eg. She didn‘t say hi to me, I must have done something wrong)  Emotional Reasoning o (I know I did okay, but I still feel like a failure)  Magnification/Minimization o Peer evaluation in class, two negative responses and 28 positive evaluations‘= only focus on negatives) Undoing Cognitive Distortions:  Test of evidence o Reasons for conclusion o Search for contrary evidence o Alternative explanations o Derive new conclusion based on evidence o *Useful in overcoming generalization  Double Standard Method o Talk to yourself as you would talk to a friend  Experimental Technique o Do an experiment to test the validity of your thought  Thinking in shades of Grey o Evaluate situation based on continuum  Survey Method o Ask other people what they think about your thoughts/ attitudes  Semantic Method o Use less emotionally loaded language; good to alter ―should‖ statements o Eg. ―I shouldn‘t have made that mistake‖ to something more positive and less emotional  Cost Benefit Analysis (see powerpoint for chart) PSYC100 Week 7 Lecture 10/17/2012 5:30:00 AM The Brain and Central Nervous System Brain‘s cortex bumpy and rough Our reality entirely created by our brain Both hemispheres of brain work tightly together in unison (myth that each side of brain is strictly responsible for certain areas) Grey matter of cortex of a human brain were ―uncrumpled‖ and spread flat, it would cover a typical dining room table Association Areas: receive input from the sensory areas and lower parts of the brain and are involved in cognition (perception, thought & decision making) Frontal cortex functions to help organize our behaviour Brain made of  Meninges  Blood Vessels  Cerebrospinal fluid  Neurons and Glia  Grey matter & White matter Meninges: Brain coverings. Protect the brain. Fresh brain is texture of jello. Blood Vessels: 2 kinds of vessels, venus vessels and arterium vessels. Arteries carry blood to the brain, Blood vessels feed the brain and get rid of waste. Veins carry used blood away from brain Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a liquid generated in the ventricles inside the head. Liquid filled space used to help keep the cortex inflated and shapely. Neurons communicate with eachother chemically Some neurons more than a metre in length The neuron is the information processing unit of the nervous system Neurons and Glia  Neurons are information messengers  Glia are the support, protection, nourishment repair. Neurotransmission. Dendrites: collect electrical signals Cell body: integrates incoming signals to axon Axon: Passes electrical signals to dendrites of another cell to an effector cell Neurons transmit information at synapses Drugs alter synaptic transmission in three ways:  Presynaptic ventricle; increases neurotransmitters or decreases neurotransmitters.  In synaptic cleft. Encourages neurotransmitter to ―hang around longer‖. OR can speed up clearance of neurotransmitter  Synaptic receptor: can bind with postsynaptic receptor, blocking it off, OR can emulate it, binding it, imposing as the drug PSYC100 Week 8 Lecture 10/17/2012 5:30:00 AM Flavour and eating most multi-sensory action; sight, smell, taste, sound, etc. Cognitive Impenetrability: brains ability to perform many unconscious actions (ie. In terms of perspectives) Humans are NOT sensitive to all important forms of physical energy (ie. Poisonous gas we cant sense directly)  Humans DO NOT have magneto reception People who are colour blind DO NOT ONLY see in black white and grey. Still see colours, just different from our colours. Light rays are NOT coloured, our brain turns it into colour. Photoreceptors produce colour. Electromagnetic spectrum: …important…? Lots of energy in world we do not perceive ( a lot we can not detect) Why don‘t we just perceive EVERYTHING out there?  We evolved to only perceive SOME of what‘s out there. It would be overwhelming to perceive ‗everything‘. Why do we sense?  Survival  Senses- gates on the world  Gates permit signals to pass in, keep other signals out  Our sense organs respond to very restricted range of information in the world Troxler Fading- (grey area with black dot test. Grey area disappears) We are more sensitive to change than to constant stimulation. We adapt Receptors i
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