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PSYC 202
Christopher Bowie

 Paraphilias are viewed as defensive in nature, protecting the ego from having to deal with repressed fears and memories and representing fixations at pregential stages of psychosexual development  They are seen to be fearful of heterosexual relationship and heterosocial relationships that don’t involve sex  Their sexual development is immature, stunted and inadequate for both social and heterosexual intercourse with the adult world Behavioural and Cognitive Perspectives  Paraphilias arise from classical conditioning that by chance has linked sexual arousal with classes of stimuli o This orgasm-conditioning hypothesis has very little empirical support  Most other behavioural/cognitive theories are multidimensional and take childhood sexual abuse and parent- child relationships into consideration  Alcohol and negative affect are often triggers of incidents of pedophilia, voyeurism, and exhibitionism  Cognitive distortions also play a role (they may think that these women like it)  Operant conditioning perspective – Paraphilias are considered an outcome of inadequate social skills or reinforcement of unconventionality by parents or relatives (ex. Praised as a child for wearing mother’s dress) Biological Perspectives  Majority are male; so androgen has been suspected as the principle male hormone that plays a role  Dysfunction in the temporal lobe may be relevant to a minority of cases of sadism and exhibitionism Therapies for Paraphilias  Because they are illegal, many are imprisoned and their treatment is ordered by court  Most offenders begin in adolescence  They often lack the motivation for treatment  Minimization of the seriousness of their problem, a belief that their victims will not be credible witnesses, and the confidence that they can control their behaviour without professional help  they are frequently judged to be inappropriate for treatment programs  Methods to enhance motivation o The therapist can empathize with the offender  reduces the offenders defensiveness and hostility o Therapist can point out to the offender the treatments that might help him control his behaviour better and emphasize the negative consequences of refusing treatment o Can tell them the benefits of the treatment o Therapist can explain that there will be psychophysiolgical assessment of the patients sexual arousal  so it will be revealed without his admitting to them  There is a risk after the treatment and he is put back into the community Psychoanalytic Therapy  They believe that paraphilias arise from character disorder (personality disorder) and it is really difficult to treat  They have made very few contributions for the therapy Behavioural Techniques  They are more focused on the particular pattern of unconventional sexuality  Therapies are used for only changing the sexual aspect of the individual’s makeup  Aversion therapy – giving shock when they think of that sexually arousing object o May not completely eliminate the attraction  Satiation – masturbating to the object for a long time even after ejaculation and fantasizing out loud about his deviant activity  Both of the above combined can also be very beneficial  Orgasmic reorientation: help patient learn to become more aroused by conventional sexual stimuli (they are confronted with the arousing stimulus while they are responding sexually for other, undesirable reas
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