Cyber Bowie #3 (Developmental Disorders)
1. According to Barkley, what is one of the functions of the upper portion Anterior
Cingulate Cortex (ACC)? Think of an example in your life where the upper portion of
the ACC would be activated.
Helping you make decisions in social conflicts, where there are social
consequences now and later for what you are about to do. The ACC helps
negotiate the conflicts. It buys you time to think about it, and then allows
you to execute behaviour that is in your long-term welfare.
2. According to Barkley, what is one of the functions of the lower portion of the
ACC? Think of an example in your life where the lower portion of the ACC would be
Plays a role whenever there are emotional conflicts. This is where the frontal
lobe is going to suppress the emotional system.
3. Barkley notes that the ACC is both smaller in individuals with ADHD, and is less
active when they face social and/or emotional conflict.
a. Which section of the brain becomes less regulated as a result of having lower ACC
The limbic system (regulates emotion)
b. Given this low ACC activity, what symptoms would one expect as a result?
Emotionally impulsive, low frustration tolerance, impatience, quickness to
anger, won’t wait, showing your emotions more easily
c. According to Barkley, how can the neurobiology and symptoms of ADHD be
differentiated from mood disorders like Bipolar disorder?
With mood disorders, the limbic system is over-expressing abnormal levels of
emotion, and patients have trouble regulating it – bipolar disorder
ADHD is not a mood disorder – failure to regular mood, inability to inhibit,
self-calm, self-sooth, contemplate and moderate emotions
The mood can be the same with both, but how we express it is different
Next, take a look at this TED talk by Temple Grandin: