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Queen's University
PSYC 321
Rob Beamish

-1Lecture #25 Stress & Health (Part II) Ÿ Much of the research on consciousness over the last 100 years has focused on contents of consciousness, entirely on thoughts we have, the feelings we have, the goals and motives, all of which represent contents of our consciousness Ÿ Very little research on consciousness itself, new studies on qualities of conscious experience, psychological, biological related Ÿ Mindfulness is the quality of our consciousness, state of being and attentiveness of what is happening in the presence Ÿ Two psychological processes refer to our awareness and attention Ÿ Awareness is the process by which we monitor our environment, interior and exterior environment all of which enter into our consciousness Ÿ We are not always spaying attention to what we are aware of, attention is what we are focusing on, the limited content that we pick up, particular aspects of what we are aware of Ÿ Mindfulness involves a variety of experiences, quality of experience is distinct, being focused in the present moment, not distracted by thoughts or concerns about future, or regrets or remorse on past, they are focused now, in clarity, viewing experiences in a polished mirror, not focused on classifying, categorizing on experiences and environments judging and evaluating, determining what things mean, in state of clarity you do not do these things, simply allowing it to be (open and receptive stance toward the present moment) Ÿ Person who is meditating still ahs thoughts and worries and feelings, but they are not overwhelmed, stepping out of the stream of thoughts and feelings, watching it go by (quality of dis-attachment) Ÿ Assumption that this is not the particular experience reserved for one group of people, mindfulness is an experience which all of us practise, tends to come and go, fluctuates Ÿ Some of us either through good fortune or disciplined practise experience more states of mindfulness than others Ÿ Kirk Brown and colleagues have two general hypotheses, mindfulness will contribute to well being directly and indirectly, it is good, Kirk is assuming that to some extent it is directly beneficial, in a very basic study people are sampling chocolate, one group can do whatever they want while eating enjoy it more, the people who are distracted don’t enjoy the chocolate as much Ÿ It can contribute in an indirect way, practising it may help interrupt all the little habits in life, some of which are not good to act in, help us from disengaging in habitual activities, help us exercising and making better choices (e.g. during exam times, eating habits are bad, but mindfulness will help you appreciate the choices you make which help you make more better decisions) Ÿ Kirk Brown and Richard Ryan have seen these two pathways of direct and indirect routes of wellbeing Ÿ They had in their lien of research that mindfulness would predict three things, wellbeing, people who are more mindful have higher rates of self esteem lower rates of anxiety and depression, two more mindful people show higher levels of awareness, more concordant, and third, mindfulness will contribute to healthy self regulation, exercising a kind of choice in your day to day life, things are not chosen for them, personal autonomy Ÿ Brown and Ryan developed a questionnaire, 15 items scale, in the direction of mindlessness (states of mindlessness are much more common, so it is easier for participants to related) Ÿ Collected and identified by factor analysis, screened by zen practitioners, and experts of meditation to show their opinions Ÿ Predicted by mindfulness from the question, correlates and consequences of being mindful or inattentive Ÿ First sets of questions about personality, are there certain traits, high for openne
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