Class Notes (835,342)
Canada (509,116)
RELS 223 (19)
Lecture

Buddhism Part 2

15 Pages
118 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Religious Studies
Course
RELS 223
Professor
Peter Campbell
Semester
Fall

Description
Buddhism RELS 223 – 2 Tues Feb 26/13 Buddhism in Tibet  Tibet o Remote, land-locked, many mountain ranges o Most of the land is cold, snowy, inhospitable o Sparsely populated with villages and towns, population of settlers and nomads o Majority population lives in the valleys  Also location of main monastic institutions o Capital is Llasa  Potala – main monastery, where Dalai Lamas live  Monastic city o Country fairly inaccessible except through trade routes (Silk Road) to India, China, Nepal o Mountains as source of greatest Asian rivers o Tibetan language derived from Chinese, script derived from Sanskrit o Highest political office is the Dalai Lama (“Ocean of Wisdom”)  Spiritual and political leader  Monks engage in politics o Until 7 century, Tibet had a strong military  Spread and Development of Buddhism o Encounter with other cultures o Simple transplantation model to describe the introduction and establishment of Buddhism in different countries:  Contact  Primarily in the plateau  First Dispensation (did not take root) o 635 CE, King Songtsen Gampo marries a Chinese princess and a Nepalese princess, both of whom were Buddhist  Built a temple in Llasa for them and based his rule of law on Buddhist ethics  Sent scholars to India to learn about Buddhism and brought Buddhist practitioners from India to propagate the dharma of Vajrayana (tantra)  Gampo seen as incarnation of Avalokiteshvara, bodhisattva of compassion  “Om mani padme hum” o “The Jewel in the Lotus”  Gampo’s wives were personifies as Tara  Show with leg outstretched because she has one foot in samsara  Call upon her when in danger, is a bodhisattva of compassion  Second Dispensation o King Trisong Detsen (755-797) converted to Buddhism  Brought Indian scholars from Nalanda University to Tibet, brought texts from India and China to translate and study o Shantarakshita (705-788), abbot of Nalanda University, came to Tibet and presided over building of first monastery (Sam-ye)  Took 12 years to build  Advocate of “gradual path to enlightenment”  Advised Detsen to bring Padmasambhava to Tibet (to tame the local Bon gods and convert them to Buddhism)  Padmasambhava – “Guru Rinposhe”, most important figure in Tibetan Buddhism next to Sakyamuni Buddha  Founded the Nyingma-pa (“ancient school”)  Creates one of the first lineages  Confrontation or conflict  Under King Darma (836-832), Buddhism became unpopular and practitioners were persecuted o But ties with India and closed monasteries o Sangha became unpopular, went underground  Adaptation and reorientation  How it changes in reaction to the host culture  How do we get here? o Lineages  Complex schools of teachers and their teachings o Ritual  Based on Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism  Solidify one’s identity in the religious tradition o Belief in the dharmakaya  Belief that all individuals are seen as emanations of buddhas and/or bodhisattvas  E.g. king is an eternal emanation of Mannusri, the Dalai Lama is an emanation of Avalokitesvara th  In 10 century, King Yeshe-Od brings Atisha, an elder scholar from Nalanda, to Tibet o His teachings were a synthesis of Abhidarma (higher teachings of dharma from the Theravada tradition), the Vinaya (monastic codes), along with fresh insights into Mahayana and Vajrayana/ Tantra from India o Blend of Theravada monastic codes, Mahayana ides of awakening the bodhicitta (aspiration to attain enlightenment, also called Bodhi-mind), the Mahayana philosophies of Madhyamika and Yogacara  Bodhisattvas o Manjusri – carries a sword o Mantraya – future Buddha, lineage of compassion o Tara  Atisha (982-1054) and Atisha’s disciple Dromtonpa founded the Tibetan monastic order known as Kadam-pa (Kelsang Donsang’s tradition is the New Kadampla and they trace their lineage to Atisha)  Lineage holder of teachings of Manjusri (lineage of compassion from Asanga)  Kuluta Centre sees itself as New Kadampa  Kargu-pa school o “The Whispered Translation” o Founded by Marpa (1012-1097), the great translator  Example of how Tibetans brought Buddhism from India to Tibet  Went to India and studied with Naropa, head monk of Nalanada University  Naropa taught by Tilopa, wild yogi who broke down all his preconceptions of life o Most famous disciple is Milarepa (1040-1123)  One of the most beloved figures in Tibetan Buddhism  As a youth, learned black magic so that he could take revenge on his uncle who severely mistreated his family  After he destroyed his uncle, he met Marpa (his guru)  Marpa recognized Milarepa’s dark karma and accepted him as a disciple  Subjected to harsh testing over 6 years before was initiated into Tantric Buddhism  Marpa revealed the secrets of tantric practice to Milarepa, who became on the of the greatest yogi of Tibetan Buddhism  Always shown clad in white  Lives in highest areas of the Himalayas wearing very little o Practice of dummo, generates heat in the body  Sometimes shown holding his ear, hearing the sounds of enlightenment o Disciples of Milarepa became to record o Naropa depicted blowing a horn  Sakya-Pa o School founded in 1073 by Drokmi, a contemporary of Atisha o Leadership is hierarchy (passed from father to son)  Gelug-Pa o Founded by Tsongkha-pa (1357-1419) o Monasteries founded near the capital of Llasa and went on to become the most prominent of the 4 schools of Tibetan Buddhism o Ritual has much pomp and ceremony o Distinguished by wearing yellow hats o Dalai Lama is the head of the Gelug-pa  Nyingma-pa’s main practice is called Dzogchen o Doing nothing o Founded by Padmasambhava  Kadam-pa o Atisa imported the Tara cult  Practice of Tara became one of the most wide-spread practices in Tibet  Tsongkha-pa founded Ganden monastery (1409) o Called his order New Kadam (related to Kuluta and Kelsang Donsang’s tradition) o Became known as Gelupa, teaches primarily Lam Rim, or the “graduated path”  Not sudden enlightenment, move toward it progressively and deeply  Kagyu-pa founded by Tilopa, passed on to Naropa, passed on to Marpa, passed on to Milarepa, passed on to Gampopa, who systematized the teachings o Main practice is Mahamudra  The Great Gesture or Great Seal o 2 important branches:  Drikung  Karma  Innovative self-development  Begins to influence the host culture  Thangka – meditation through art o Shows the lineages of the school  Architecture is indigenous to the culture o Very bright, vibrant, ornate  Gelug-pa and the Dalai Lama o Founded by Je Tsongkhapa (1357-1419) Tues March 5/13 Buddhism in China and Japan  Meditation journal o Do not need to buy into world view of Kadampa school  Can critique or analyze western Buddhism  E.g. paradox between discourse on scientific and language of karma o As if karma and past lives are scientific o Think about, reflect, do not re-describe o 2 pages per session, 4 pages in total  Central themes in transplantation of a religion in a new country: o Step 1: Contact/ encounter  Travelled along Silk Road  First texts brought to China and transplanted by a translation bureau headed by Kumarajiva  Translation very important, allows spread of texts  Language of scripture not considered sacred o Translation provides valid means to convey central doctrines or teachings (dharma) in a foreign land o In China, initially used the language of Daoism for key concepts  Daoist philosophy resonated more closely than Confucianism with many Buddhist ideas  First contact through texts and statues o Step 2: Differences/ Conflict  Indian monks shave heads, begged for alms, did not work, supported by laity, renounced families, changed family names, practiced celibacy  China valued filial piety and ancestor worship above all else  Indian Buddhist practices considered controversial and immoral  Sangha was independent from political realm  Reparation did not work well in a Confucian setting o Buddhists viewed as parasites  However, monks repaid society by teaching dharma  Resonated with Daoism o Also liked pantheon of buddhas and bodhisattvas  Mahayana Buddhism  Text says Buddhism found favour in China because it was a foreign religion o Questionable o Legend that Lao Tzu left China and travelled West  In China, “Buddha” was initially aligned with Lao Tzu rd  Monasteries built, mthks and nun initiated, Buddhism became viable 3 religion in China o However, by 9 century, monasteries charged with corruption and first persecution occurred (more persecution under Communist China)  Property confiscated, ordination outlawed, old monks forced to work  Step 3: Assimilation or the Sinification of Buddhism o Phase one: Texts  First stage reflects the importance of translation and proliferation of texts  Buddhism became “sectarian”  Organized itself into “classical” schools or groups o E.g. great translator Kumarajiva founded Sanlun school (Madhyamika) o E.g. Xuanzang founded Faxiang (Yogacara) o Huayan founded Tian-tai (Avatamsaka or Flower Garland Sutra) o Bodhidharma founded Chan o Tan Luan founded Jingtu or Pureland  Early scholastic of philosophical schools were organized around the translation of a specific text translated from Sanskrit (indicating Mahayana) into Chinese o Theravada teachings came too, but Mahayana took root  Sanlun (Three Treatises) was based on Kumarajiva’s translations of texts by Nagarjuna from the Madhyamika school of Mahayana philosophy  However, inaccessible, too intellectual, scholastic  Faxiang organized by Xuanzang (596-664) was based on a translation of texts vby Asanga and Vasubandhu  Corresponds to the Indian Yogacara school and teaches basic Yogacara thought o Including idea that mind is the architect of experience and the ides of alaya-vijnana (storehouse consciousness)  These so-called “scholastic schools” of Chinese Buddhism, based on Indian schools, texts and antecedents, were imported to Japan during the Nara period  Translated from Indian to Chinese to Japanese  Statues begin to look like the people from the country o Phase Two: Original and indigenous thought, rather than simply direct translation of texts from India  Tian-tai  Chinese school of Buddhism developed by Zhiyi  Response to the proliferation of Buddhist texts and practices  Like other schools of Chinese Buddhism is largely organised around a text called the Lotus Sutra o Pinnacle of the Buddha’s teachings  “Why are there so many different teachings of only one dharma?”  Zhiyi explained this discrepancies by saying that the Buddha taught to different disciples based on their capacity o “Eka-yana”, the “one vehicle”  The three schools or turnings of the wheel of dharma differ only in a “conventional” or “relative” sense o Way to explain the apparent contradictions in the various Buddhist texts imported from India to China  Tian-tai is known as Tendai in Japan  Hua-yen  Organized around the Flower Ornament Sutra (Avatamsaka Sutra from India)  Founded by Du-shun, organized by Fazang  Died out after the 845 CE persecution  Known as Kegon in Japan  Important for assimilation, introduced “Chinese terms” to explain Indian Buddhist ideas o E.g. used the word “li” (principle) to translate “shunyata” (emptiness)  Stage 4: innovation and final assimilation o Chan School  Zen in Japan  Named from the Sanskrit word “Dhyana”, meditation, the central focus  Origins in legendary Indian meditation master named Bodhidharma  First patriarch of Chan Buddhism in China o Chan as patriarchal system o Leadership passed on through lineages  2 stories concerning Bodhidharma and early Chan o Bodhidharma (arrived in China ca. 520) was meditating on a mountain and cut off his eyelids so he would not fall asleep  Wall meditation  While meditating, a monk came by and asked him to teach him to meditate  Bodhidharma did not move  The monk cut off his arm to show he was serious o Competition, whoever could write the poem that best describes enlightenment would be patriarch  Illiterate Hui-neng won  Sudden insightfulness into the dharma  Completely new innovation  No Zen or Chan school in India  Idea of sudden enlightenment  Developed in reaction against proliferation of texts  Became iconoclastic and maintained that scriptures can be an obstacle to enlightenment  Maintains strong master-student relationship  Classic encounters or the records between masters and students are preserved (gongan) and presented as riddles (koans in Japanese) for students to meditate on  Also uses abrupt and shocking techniques to more practitioner to enlightenment  Mahayana school, emphasizes teachings on emptiness, Buddha nature, possibility of universal awakening/ enlightenment (wu)  Of 5 historical divisions, only two survived o Linji (sudden enlightenment school, called Rinzai in Japan) o Caodong (gradual enlightenment school, Soto in Japan) o Both teach a strict and formulaic practice of sitting meditation (wall meditation) and Rinzai uses koan  Words not necessary to communicate o Examples of Buddha’s disciple Maha-Kasyapa o Primary texts are the Platform Sutra and the Lankavatara Sutra  “One who attains enlightenment, no longer sees duality”  Chan is a fully-integrated Chinese-identified school of Buddhism (no Indian counterpart) and one of the most enduring  Clearly reflects the stage of innovative self-development and is original in its understanding of Buddha dharma  In China, Avalokitesvara, bodhisattva of compassion, becomes Kuan Yin, female deity  Pureland o Jingtu, the foremost school of Buddhism in China, corresponds to Jodo Shu in Japan, developed by Honen (1133-1212) and established by Hiuyuan (344-416) o Focuses on the practice of faith in Amitabha (the cosmic Buddha of light, called AMita in Chinese and Amida in Japanese) o Differs from Zen/Chan and most other schools because of its emphasis on devotion/faith o Tanluan (476-542) introduced the practice of mantra or recitation, nianfo (“namo Amituofo”) as a way to receive/generate the transfer of merit from the cosmic Buddha of the Western Paradise known as Amitabha  Amitabha bestows “grace” upon the practitioner (or merit transfer) o Central text is the Pureland Sutra  Some call this an “easy path”  Emphasis on another (Amitabha) to save you (called tariki) out of love and compassion  Gained wide acceptance and was much more accessible to the masses/ laity o Most popular school in China where it merged with Chan o Remained independent school in Japan  The Kamakure Period o 1192-1338, Japan o Japan under the rule of the Shogun and the samurai  In response to this, rise of several school with a mass appeal, particularly the school from China called Pureland (Jodo Shu
More Less

Related notes for RELS 223

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit