Monday October 22, Week 7
Theology of Islam (kalam)
Use of reason and logic to test the truth of religious statements so that this
statement’s truth is not taken for granted.
Philosophy is interdependent and does not rely on religion. It begins with
faith and ends with faith but there is no such guarantee in the philosophy.
In religion faith is prior to reason and vise versa in philosophy
Clashes between the two: Ghazzali-Ibn Sina-Ibn Rushd conflicts
Theology served jurisprudence (law) and the Theologians served the
scholar-jurists. If you needed help with the laws of Islam and how to go
about doing things, you were to go to Theologians.
The problem of “Grave Sinners”. If people commit a grave sin, is this
person still a Muslim or an Infidel? Two groups emerged from this idea,
the Kharijites (early fundamentalists: against the idea… you are not a
Muslim if you commit a big sin. If you are not in an Islamic country you are
not a Muslim because you will have to do things that are against your
religion) vs the Murji’ites (it is for God to judge, so you are still a Muslim
until they are judged by God. You can be a Muslim anywhere as long as
its in your heart)
Theology and Politics
During Ummayad Dynasty, the Jabarites (pro-Ummayad and pro-state,
believe in predestination) vs the Qadarites (anti-Ummayad, believe in free-
The Abbasyd House of Wisdom, (the effort to try to understand in a
systematic way, faith)
The Translation Movement (Translated from Syriac and Greek to Western
languages so that Aristotle could be reintroduced)
Islamic rationalism and the continuation of Qadarism (free will),
elaborating on it.
Used a lot of Greek logic
Thought that reason and revelation were complimentary and if you see
contradictions it is because you are not reading it correctly. So they came
up with reasonable interpretations of things although harshly criticized