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SOCY 122 (211)
Rob Beamish (190)


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SOCY 122
Rob Beamish

Sociology Week 3 Lecture 11/1/2012 5:28:00 AM FOCUS OF WEEK 3: The Sociological Imagination Natural Attitude:  Tend to view world through our own personal lens.  Notion of naturalism, how we naturally perceive the world  As biological beings, we rely on our senses.  Gives us an egocentric and isolated perspective**  „Web‟ of social relations: how we are all connected and intertwined. Every-Day-Knowledge:  Common sense  Based on our experiences and our past encounters.  Commonality between people‟s everyday stocks of knowledge: accumulate a standard of said “common sense”.  Vast repertoire of knowledge Sociological Imagination:  Personal troubles of milieu; o Character of individual and immediate relations. o Solution lies within an individual, immediate milieu and willful activity. o A trouble is a private matter.  Public issues of social structure; o Transcend local environment o Entails organization of many milieu extending into institutions and structures of historical society o An issue is a public matter 3 Key Questions: 1. What is the structure of society as a whole?  Essential components: differences from other social orders; meaning of particular features. o Essential components; ie.) -strong belief in equality of opportunity- dominant value of current day society. technology. -democracy 2. Where does the society stand in history?  Mechanics of change; development of humanity; period‟s essential features; characteristic way of making history o Essential features to mechanics of change: Ie.) Economy (and its stability), social media 1 3. What varieties of men and women prevail- are coming to prevail?  How selected, formed, repressed, blunted, liberated; what of “human nature” is revealed; what is its significance? o What of human nature is revealed in life experiences we have had so far?; In a way our everyday stocks of knowledge make us resilient to change. 2 Socy122 Week 4 Lecture 11/1/2012 5:28:00 AM What is the Enlightenment?  Empiricism  “age of reason”- Emphasis on scientific facts opposed to facts via authority of church. (Enlightenment mainly happened in 1789)  Freedom, mastery & progress. What is Important about the British Political Economy?  Period of industrialization.  Emergence of class workers; exploited and mistreated  Notion of overproduction begins to emerge What is Important about the German Idealism?  Philosophical notion in which human progress can develop What is “Dialectic” and why is it significant?  Notion of dialogue: Put forth a position, Socratic teacher contradicts and points out weaknesses. From there, you elaborate a new response and re-propose it (constant cycle)  Dialectic changes in human questions until we have a fully comprehensive knowledge  Human life is constantly changing through a process of tension, contradiction, and overcoming contradictions. Marx work is described as “unfinished”  Never got a chance to finish work. Constantly refined ideas but never concluded them  As soon as he tried to articulate position, he saw holes or flaws, and revisited theories  Because its unfinished, can be reinterpreted in many different ways  Dynamic society continuously changes, hence why Marx‟s work could never be concluded Essential features of Marx‟s  Just as Darwin discovered the evolutionary laws of nature, Marx discovered the evolutionary laws of society  Production is the most essential feature of societies  Production is the ontological condition of humankind  1845 German Ideology manuscript published by Engels and Marx  History and change are fundamental to human condition 1 o “In the social production of their lives, humankind, independently of its will, enters determinate, necessary relations, relations of production appropriate to….”  STRUCTURE; o Superstructure-- legal & political superstructure; determinate forms of consciousness. o Base—Economic structure of society totality of the relations of production. (Mode of production; social relations of production and the material forces of production)  2 Socy122 Week 5 Lecture 11/1/2012 5:28:00 AM Karl Marx- models; 1. Base, superstructure on top. Arrow going from base upwards to superstructure, showing direction of influence and power (point upwards) a. Legal structure b. Political system c. Determinate forms of consciousness Base: identifies mode of production; made up of material forces and social relations of production. Superstructure: social, political, and intellectual processes overall Fedder- chaining or restricting force Karl Marx & Adam Ferguson* (find out who/what he did) Feudalism creates stability, beginning of trade begins to develop. (during roman empire) Material forces of production:  Raw materials  Place to assemble (machinery)  Labour force  Economic Determinism  Not machinery or technology- but economy as a whole  Long term tendency of rate of profit to fall as technology becomes more widespread  Mass of profit increased by selling more goods at smaller marginal gain  Incentive to us still more technology to increase productivity further 1 SOCY122 Week 6 Lecture 11/1/2012 5:28:00 AM Communist Manifesto:  A document with a specific history.  Imagery and intellectual craftsmanship  The dynamics of modernity.  Karl Marx‟s Manifesto, but Written by (Wilham Whitely?), a Protestant communist. Came form religious train of thought. Talked of emergence of socialism through religion.  “Eschatology”  Two Focal points: o The “material relations” of society- objective dynamic o “class struggle” (class consciousness) subjective dynamic Change is driven by internal contradictions and struggle Descartes  Radical Doubt and the Discourse on Method 1. Accept Nothing; reject prejudice 2. Divide questions into simplest parts 3. Begin with most simple- move to more complex 4. Review thoroughly Montesquieu  Persian letters  Considerations on the Roman Empire  Spirit of the Laws o 3 social types- despotisms, monarchies, republics o Their nature- despot, king, legislative body o Their Principles- fear, honour, virtue Montesquieu and Sociology  Importance of Observation- the “nature of things”  Broken to constituent parts- key focus on social “spirit- customs, mores, styles of though Saint Simon  1800 to 1813, primarily concerned with the unity of knowledge
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