Class Notes (835,540)
Canada (509,226)
Sociology (1,100)
SOCY 210 (136)
Lecture 4

Measurement (week 4)

6 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Sociology
Course
SOCY 210
Professor
Vincent F Sacco
Semester
Fall

Description
Measurement  Careful observations of the real world  Purpose of describing objects and events in terms of their attributes  Describing attributes that make up a variable o Most variables are created  Variables do not exist in nature  They are terms we have made up that have specific meanings or purpose Concepts, Conceptions  Concepts o Mental images of what we perceive something to be  Eg. Being racist, hating women and homosexuals are all terms  These terms all have something in common and are categorized as a concept  Conceptualization o The process of finding what terms have in common and categorizing them o Coming to an agreement about what terms mean  Result is an overall concept o Making direct and indirect observations come together in a construct o Specifying what we mean when we use a particular term in a research project  To specify exact meaning, you must describe indicators  Indicators measure the concept  Indicators  The presence or absence of the concept being studied  Dimensions  Different aspects of the concept o Reification  Process of regarding things that are not real as real Concepts as constructs  3 Classes of things scientists measure o Direct Observables  What we observe directly  Eg. Colour of an apple o Indirect Observables  What we do not observe directly  Eg. Observing someone’s gender from reading a questionnaire o Constructs  Theoretical creations based on observations  Cannot be observed directly  Eg. IQ tests  Help us organize, communicate, and understand things that real  Concept is something we create o Eg. Prejudice, compassion  Created based on our conceptions of them and based on what others believe  Created by mutual agreements about mental images (conceptions)  Conceptions summarize a collection of observations and experiences  Social researchers focus on the meanings of the words and actions created for the people under study o There is ambiguity with mental images and creating concepts  Dimension o Aspect of a concept  Feelings vs. actions that make up compassion  Two different aspects of compassion that can still be considered valid o Complete conceptualization involves  Specifying dimensions of a concept  Specifying various indicators for each Nominal and Operational Definitions  Nominal o Simply assigned to a term without any claim that the definition is “real”  Operational Definition o Specifies precisely how a concept will be measured o Listing all the operations that will be performed o Maximum clarity of what a concept means in a given study  Specification  The process by which concepts are made more specific Creating conceptual order  Clarification on concepts is key in data collection  Operationalization results in a commitment to specific questionnaire items that represent the concept under study o Without commitment, the study would not work  Nominal definitions do not allow us to observe o Merely focuses observational strategy o We must specify exactly what we want to observe  How we will do it  What interpretations will we put on different observations  These are all part of operationalization o If someone were to disagree with your definition, the person would still know how to interpret the results because what we meant was precise and clear  Order can also be found with the utility of a particular conceptualization o The more it is used, the likely hood of someone else to adopt it o Leads to standardized definitions of concepts o (how useful a concept is determines the likelihood of it being used again)  1. Conceptualization  2. Nominal Definition  3. Operational Definition  4. Measurements in the real world Definitions Used in Descriptive and Explanatory Studies  Definitions are more problematic for descriptive research than explanatory research  Changing definitions result in different conclusions Operationalization Choices  Conceptualization o Refinement and specification of abstract concepts  Operationalization o Development of specific research procedures o Results in empirical observations that represent
More Less

Related notes for SOCY 210

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit