Indexes, scales: allows us to summarize several indicators in a single score, both ordinal measures of variables, both rank order, composite measures of variables. Index: summarizes and rank orders specific observations, represents a more general dimension, summarizing responses. Constructed by accumulating scores assigned to individual indicators. Adding up all the prejudice statements a respondant agrees with. Scale: constructed by assigning scores to a pattern, pattern of responses. Each variable contributes: some items reflect a week degree and others reflect a high degree of the variable. Acknowledges the differences of intensity among attributes of one variable: usually superior to indexes. Selecting possible items: index is used to measure a variable, needs face validity, unidimensionality. A measure should represent only one dimension of a concept: general or specific. General is a balanced set of questions. Specific is specific to your dimension: variance.