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SOCY 211 (69)
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Lecture 2

SOCY211 Week 2, Lecture 1

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SOCY 211
Carl Keane

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SOCY211 Week 2, Lecture 1 - Basic descriptive statistics, “data reduction” - Frequency distributions - One of the first things a researcher will do is organize the data the research yields - We looked at proportions, rates and ratios - Percentage change- from time one to time two - - This is often used to show how certain groups have increased or decreased over time - This is informative but we have to be careful when we interpret the number- you have to look beyond just the final percentage that you obtain - You can show data in tables, bar graphs, pie graphs - Stem and leaf plots are barely used *won’t be on the test* - You begin with an examination of the individual measurements - Measures of central tendency- useful way to describe a group as a whole with a single number that represents what is average or what is typical in the course - It is generally located towards the centre of the distribution - Three measures of central tendency- mode, median and mean - Mode (mo)- most typical/frequent/common score in a distribution. o Ex: 2, 4, 7, 7, 8 o Mode is 7 - Mode is the only measure that can be used for nominal level variables- can be used to describe the most common score in any distribution - Some frequency distributions can have multiple modesthis is known as bimodal - Median (mdm)- original of interval/ratio level data, the middle point in a distribution, it cuts the distribution in half; two equal parts o Ex. 1, 2, 4, 7, 10- four is the median - - formula used if there is an odd or even number of variables in total and you want to find the middle - Mean ( ̅)- Calculated by adding up a set of scores and dividing by the number of scores in the set (the total) ∑ - Formula: ̅ = where ∑ the summation of all the scores, and n is the number of cases - Remembe
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