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Lecture 5

SOCY211- Week 5, Lecture 1

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SOCY 211
Carl Keane

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SOCY211- Week 5, Lecture 1 Inferential Statistics Review - Inferential statistics: “inferences about a population based on results from a sample” - You draw a random sample from the population - Everybody in the population has an equal probability of ending in the sample - The law of large numbers- the larger the denominator, the smaller the standard error - Example: ̅ √ Sample mean age: 40 Standard deviation: 20 Sample size: 500 √ Our estimate is that the mean age for the population in question is between 38.25 years and 41.75 - This 5% probability of error is called alpha - Example (with 99% Confidence interval): ̅ √ - Now let’s do this again but with a sample size of 2000 √ - Therefore the margin of error is 1.76 years Bivariate Tabular Analysis- Crosstabs - There are two variables that are related o Education-------- > Income - Does education have an impact of income 1. Causation- association does not mean causation, you need: association, sequence and non spuriousness 2. Direction- positive direction: as education goes up, income goes up  this could also be negative 3. Independent and dependent variables (education, cause; income, effect) Constructing a Bivariate Table 1. Independent Variable should be the Column variable (at the top) and the Dependent Variable should be the Row variable (along the side). 2. Independent Variable Low --------- High
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