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Lecture 3

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SOCY 226
Rob Beamish

September 23, 2013 Summary  Fry’s three levels of engagement  Contemplative/speculative (emotions, intellect and human/nature)  Action humanizing the world – actions  Imagination—Association  The Holy scriptures create our knowledge, and it is what guides our knowledge, we observe the world around up through religions  This changes through Descartes  During the theological period, people were craving practice knowledge’s (scientists)  They way people were seeing the world was become extremely different  When it comes to studying the world we live, some observations are more useful that others, and based on this we can know introduce the idea of progress because people are beginning to see the world differently Descartes  Suggesting we as human beings can use our resources to understand the world we live in  We can begin to understand the underlying principles of the world  He than begins the basis for what will become the enlightened world  Deductive model to arrive at first principles  Creates rational basis for empirical science  Mind/Body dualism: The body is dependent and that mind is independent creating a separation of mind and body.  Social Science began to see the mind as social science and science sees the body as a machine Newton Empirically based approach  Analysis/synthesis reason as an active force  Pursuit of universal laws  3 laws of motion  Out of the diversity of the world we seek unity  We can see knowledge in the science progressing  People began to see themselves as replacing G-d because they were capable of moving the world (the creation of the steam engine)  “Progress became the operative world—now endowed with the newly acquired sense of infinitude and reinforces by the material achievements of technology  Major contributor to the enlightenment  He breaks the world down into smaller parts, and than neatly puts them all together to understand the world Science and Philosophy  Enlightenment period science derives primarily from celestial mechanics  Science and philosophy are complementary pursuits of knowledge  Philosophy begins to decline, and science is become more important  We are no longer trying to determine how we will get into Heaven, it is not about creating and changing the world into something that we imagine, and we can make our imaginations a reality  19 Century science begin to predominate in hierarchy of knowledge  Philosophy seen as speculative; not empirically testable  Science becomes more prominent because you cannot test philosophy, where you can create a test and figure out what science is real and what is not  The hierarchy of knowledge or of the science  Natural Science  Philosophy  Political and social thought  The Arts  As we move in to the enlightenment period, philosophy and theology or the natural science moved down, and action and the arts moves up  A widening separation between science and the arts as different forms of knowledge with social and political thought, “Caught in the middle”  What discipline will determine knowledge of the human world?  Descartes. Montesquieu, Saint Simon, Comte, Durkheim  Social scientific knowledge in the form of natural scientific knowledge  Natural sciences gain prestige and power in the universities  Philosophy declines in power and prestige  Social though becomes social science  “ The intellectual history of the nineteenth century Is marked above all by the disiciplinarization and professionalization of knowledge, that is to say, by the creation of permanent institutional structures designed both to produce new knowledge and to reproduce the producers of knowledge”  In the 19 century they point out, that the universities start to break up into different faculties, and there is a struggle and hierarchy of knowledge Ways of knowing  Knowledge/Power  Discipline spread out like a fan  Mathematics; experimental, natural science (physics, chemistry, biology); social science humanities (history, philosophy, literature)  Intellect/emotions  Measures of progress in knowledge  Practical knowledge has raised in importance, and physics is starting to be seen as more important that biology, because physics can be more accurate in its predictions that biology (chemistry is in the middle)  In social science, economic behaviour is easier to predict that political which is easier to predict that social which are all easier to predict than biology  The arts gives us no predictability, but simply a from or entertainment and a way for people to brighten their minds  The Mathematic science, can demonstrate accurate predictions and understanding of progress (that is why those faculties receive the most money)  Pursuit of empirically based, objective knowledge (empiricism)  Observe the world carefully, and everything we observe in the world we can understand  Shut out emotions completely, and everything we than know must come from what we
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