Society as an Objective reality
Berger and Luckmann
How is the social world constructed?
1. Everyday life begins in an individual’s actions and thoughts
2. We deal with multiple realities (reality of everyday life is paramount)
Reality of everyday life is:
1. A “taken for granted” reality (the basis for society is to be an objective reality)
2. Prearranged patterns independent of my involvement (appears to person as already
3. Because of objects that existed before said person’s existence
Interraction as primary basis of everyday life:
1. Face to face is prototypical (reveals subjectivity, fluid process, based on schemes of
typification, resulting in reciprocal typification
2. Humankind has a nature (our biological capacities)
3. That particular nature allows us to create our “true nature”
Humans, together, produce a human environment
We don’t actually interact with it but rather try to use it
We don’t exist as isolated people though because we interact with people
How is the broader context of existence developed within the ideas of interaction/stalks of
1. Habitualization (Creating a stable background for interaction through stereotypical
2. However massive the objectivity of institutions, the world remains a humanly constructed
3. Society is a human product, society is an objective reality (can’t be wished away)
therefore, individuals are social products.
Where does the knowledge of these institutions come from?
It is pretheoretical (“everyone knows” facts) *This holds the in