325- sociology of knowledge as social construction of reality
- We live in a reality and a natural world.
- We gain knowledge from reality.
- The knowledge since the enlightenment is true knowledge.
- Universal truths, promise of enlightenment using empirical scientific
techniques to get a true understanding of the natural world which would
give you universal truth
People believe they could do that with the social world. Parsons as last social
thinker who believed he could create a theoretical framework that could be used
to understand all societies. Sociological form of Knowledge that was theoretical
and would reflect the actual reality.
What is the goal of sociology?
- Turner- challenges of social theory. Theory moves from metaphor to
o Based off of fryes idea.
o Metaphor is a direct association between two things. Association
between reality and universal truths
Similes now compares and allows us to change things
o Theory is like a scaffold to explore the social world. Theory allows us to
move around social reality, scaffolding provides concepts that let us think
about the social world.
o There is a relationship between theory and the world that is being studied.
There is an empircal world needs to be looked but can only be understood
through theory. Theory allows us to look at empircal world and use it to
build better scaffold and theories.
Theory without empirical world is empty.
o Empircal data without theory is blind.
o Theory is an argument, trying to convince people using thee information
you have and putting into a statement that will influence people.
o Elements that are critical to these arguments.
Logic and evidence.
We have evidence from the empircal world that we studied.
Has to be real evidence from the world. Evidence needs to be put
together and logically connected.
Use logic to build a case, build the theory that is persuasive.
Arguments have to be precise and use empircal data. has to be
clear and concise.
- Theories are cumulative to create progress.
o Frye and science and progress and development of more knowlege.
o Simile of what happens in sociology
o different legal arguments by sociologists to try and persuade people to
unstand the world in which we live. They all propose different arguments
about the social world Sociology as a form of discourse.
o Theory comes from the empircal world and universal truths.
Thats the discourse of empircal sciences.
o The disource of the empircal social science doesn't use deduction or
induction to explain all social reality.
Ratiocinative discourse. Involves a train a reason thought. Focuses
on process of reasoning, not on immediate experience.
o The social world has competing claims.
o discourse seeks psuasion through argument rather than prediction.
Based on logic and coherence of argument.
Has to be expansive, be able to explain multiple aspects. Has to
have interpretative insight, goes beyond everyday understanding of
the world. Has to have value relevance, it has to matter, ideas have
to be matched to the val