- A comprehensive theory that integrates structure and agency. Micro and
- Focusing on the structural component of his theory
Structuralist constructivism and constructivist structuralism.
- There is structure. We are born into society with a set of structures.
- They constrain shape and enable our lives. They construct our lives.
Structuralist constructivism, structure before agency.
- We also create this world.
- We create the world of structure. Constructivist structuralism.
- contains fields of positions.
o Your skills and resources determine where you sit on a field.
Bourdieu focuses on capital.
- Your resources is what allows you to succeed.
- Different types of capital
o Economic capital
o Cultural capital 3 forms
o Social capital - social network
o Symbolic capital -
o In the social world there are objective structures independant of the will
consciousness of agents.
o They are capable of guiding and constraining their practices
o We are born into a society.
o Independant of our will.
We cannot wish the structures away.
They guide and constrain us.
There are also constraining structures that are
symbolic, such as language.
We construct our world but within pre existing structures.
o The world is space, field, or structures. All the same.
o The social world occurs in a space, a space that is a field with different
positions that interact with each other.
o Individuals are born into a space, a field, into structures.
o A space where people construct their lives.
o The limitations of the space impose on the occupants of that space.
Space limits opportunity, determines where you are in life..
Depends where you are located in a space.
Field o A field can be thought of as a network of positions.
o How are positions networked together. Interrelated networked positions.
o Positions are objectively defined and they impose actions on their
Different fields exist and interact with each other.
Eg the field of education. Different positions in education. Teachers,
students. The roles constrain each occupant based on their position in the
o A field is also a field of struggles. Struggles are amid at preserving or
transforming the existing forces.
o The field is a structure of objective relations between positions of force. It
guides the strategies that individuals in positions use to improve their
- Societies are made up of different fields.
Eg economic field, scientific field, they all have different
functions. All the fields make up the giant field of society.
Either want to maintain the field, or change the field.
Those who are successful in the field want to maintain it and
those who are lower in the field want to change it.
Eg Canada is th structure with different fields.
- Education field, economic field, political field.
Funding for education, they come from political field, so they
Politicians want to be reelected so they interact with voters.
Economic field interacts with both. Both education and
health care need funding, so they interact with political field.
Political parties have to choose and interact with those field.
An entire structure of imposing and relations between forces.
Those in political power want to maintain it and those who don't want to
vote for them want to change those forces.
The positions in the field are arranged in a hierarchy.
o They have more capital. .
o Competition in the field.
People draw upon their capital to make change
The social world is a set of accumulated his