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survey of greek civ class #4 (3).docx

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Arts and Contemporary Studies
Course Code
ACS 103
Ron Babin

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October, 2 , 2012 Class #4 Survey of Greek civilization  Polis that emerged from Greek dark age was different than that of middle eastern cities  The Polis’ where small, population in hundreds or thousands  Few Greek city states are repeated in Greek history; mainly Athens, and Sparta, then also Thebes, Corinth, Rhodes  If we got back into political and economic history we only know about 2 main ones Sparta and Athens and most of both of the information we have comes from Athenian sources  Sparta is an anomaly among the Greek polis is not centered on fortified city and live in 5 unfortified villages o Spartans where decided from last group of Greek speaking immigrants o Dorian speakers o Took over the area around 800 B.C and the people they conquered where taken as slaves which were called Helot o Ruled other areas indirectly as Perioeci( the people whom they ruled indirectly) which meant some areas had to have their policies dictated as well as pledge auxiliary troops to them o Didn’t trade with other states o Seemed to be a normal Greek state before 700 B.C.E o Lycurgus for the man given credit for changing the states order ( also same name as a wolf deity in the Peloponnese  One person often affected great change in ancient Greece o New system of government had 2 kings (military leaders) as previous Sparta did( descended from 2 king groups) however they had to answer to 5 Ephors which were elected yearly from the 5 villages by all adult male citizens o Every 9 years the Ephors would look to the sky for a sign of trouble if the saw one the could dispose 1 or both kings o Gerousa was a council of elders  Consisted of citizens over the age of 60  Prepared business for the assembly  They had a great respect for people who were old o The Apellia :An assembly of all males over the age of thirty  Could be overridden by Gerousa and Ephors if they did something wrong o Males over 30 citizens were full time soldiers all other work down by slaves o Children inspected at birth, if inferior in anyway left on a hillside to the elements and animals, unlike in Athens were they would leave in cemetery and others could get if they want and Athenians were not inspected just if they didn’t want child o o Boys at 8 divided into packs and taught to be loyal to state and military training  Trained to be steal and if caught beaten  At 20 allowed to marry and had to live in barracks had to sneak out to see wife and beaten if caught  At 30 was allowed to have a home as a full citizen but had to eat with fellow soldiers if they failed to do so could lose status as solider o Women’s purpose was to bear children that is all housework for children o Barter system in most of Greece, most of needs proved by Helots and Perioeci o Spartan Army was believed to be invincible, could defeat a much larger people o Spartans weary of sending troops outside territories in fear of corrupting kings or other military leaders  Marxists great admirer of Spartans  Other city states view Spartans as Elitist and Conservative and often tried to have helots rebel Athens  Most City-States derive most of their wealth from trade  Athens went through many governments before democracy o Aristocracy, oligarchy, Tyranny  Greeks on the whole are firmly loyal to their Polis as well as individualistic  Fundamental unit is a family o Family forms a clan o Clan to Phratry o Phratry to tribe o Tribe to polis  They all stay out of each other’s business as long as it doesn’t threaten state or harm another member of the state  Athens had a political assthbly called an Ecclesia o The ecclesia in the 7 century B.C.E was for land holders o Which meant you had to be part of a clan since the clans held the land  Majority of Athenian’s illiterate o No written down law just customary o Left to Aristocracy to decide most cases  In the mid-7 century change was coming to Athens o Elections held for officials all males citizens could vote not just Ecclesia o Three sects of high officials become apparent  Basileus the person who had interfaced between the state and its gods  3 Archons who lead the Athenian military sources  6 thesmathetai appointed for life and used to manage the state where the archons couldn’t like the growing businesses  None of them got paid o Tension in state still rose  Property inalienable (passed onto the eldest son)  Growing population  Many immigrants in Athens if they didn’t have trades couldn’t get by  Gap big between rich and poor  Imports become available new things, they want them because there new  Many of the Artisans and Traders in Athens didn’t have citizenship  Elite Struggling to hold on to its own political power  Cheap Grain coming from black sea, undercut local farmers, many wealthy switched to cash crops like olives  Most common form of Slavery was Debt Slavery  Change in warfare o Before now was very aristocratic o Idea of Phalanx developed  Heavy metal armor, long spears, swords, shield  Formation a line, and one would hold shield on left arm and protect man to that side as another one would protect you  Confronted with the building tension mentioned above the Greeks decided to appoint one th individual to right a constitution the first attempt to do so at the end of the 7 century o Dracon the first attempted to draw up a constitution but this one focused to much on aristocracy right o Solon the next one o
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