BCH 261 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Lactose Permease, Enolase, Zwitterion

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30 Nov 2020
Department
Course
Lecture 7
Proteins Functions
• Catalysis:
enolase (in the glycolytic pathway)
DNA polymerase (in DNA replication)
• Transport:
hemoglobin (transports O2 in the blood)
lactose permease (transports lactose across the cell membrane)
• Structure:
collagen (connective tissue)
keratin (hair, nails, feathers, horns)
• Motion:
myosin (muscle tissue)
actin (muscle tissue, cell motility)
Human genome encodes > 20,000 proteins
Proteins = polymers of amino acids
Proteins are heteropolymers of 20 common amino acids
Amino acids have properties that are well suited to carry out a variety of
biological functions: Capacity to polymerize; Useful acid-base properties;
Varied physical properties; Varied chemical functionality
Amino acid structure
A nonionized amino acid showing the carboxylic acid group, the α-amino
group, the hydrogen bonded to the α -carbon, and the side chain (R
group) that gives the amino acid its unique properties
Zwitterion: amino acid at neutral charge, where the α-carboxylic acid
group is deprotonated and the α-amino group is protonated. The negative
charge on the α-carboxylate is delocalized over the two oxygen atoms
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Classification of 20 amino acids
Non-polar, aliphatic
Non-polar, aromatic
Polar, uncharged
Basic
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Acidic
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