BCH 463 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Big Bang, Telomerase Rna Component, Chloroplast

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26 Feb 2018
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Draw cellular pathways together for Midterm!
!
Use: Principles of Biochemistry Book!
!
!
Chapter 1: Foundations of Biochemistry !
Page 3: cell !
Mitochondria (animal cells) and Chloroplast (Plant cell) !
Both have 2 membranes:!
Eukaryotic - outside membrane!
Prokaryotic - inside membrane!
!
Question on the midterm!
Central Rules of Scientific Thought:!
#1.#Nothing is proven, only disproven - scientist cannot prove anything;$!
#2.#What do we disprove? Hypothesis!
#3.#Which hypothesis?!
#4.#Disprove the simplest model$!
#5.#3 Attributes of the simplest model:!
#6.#1. explain all the data - reliable data that is not explained by theory, then the theory is
dead!
#7.#2. It can have few or no arbitrary elements$!
#8.#3. It has to lead to a testable prediction - it has to have testable predictions, testable
via electromagnetic instruments !
!
!
Hard sciences - use electromagnetic instruments; relies on data provided by electromagnetic
instruments$!
!
Soft sciences - involve human interactions and opinions, based on surveys or perceptions!
!
***500y ago - people stopped trying to prove things and decided to start disproving things based
on objective observations and devices$!
!
!
!
Label a cell? !
nucleus!
cytoplasm - reducing environment!
Reducing environment - implication for biosynthesis: reduced equivalent used for synthesis -
synthetic environment !
Mitochondria's environment: oxidative environment !
!
Chemical evolution
Meaning:
evolution is built into everything we think and do!
how LIFE has come into existence!
Explain origin of life with existent tools ( 5 LAWS)!
"We see life evolve around us" - Darwin and he's experiments with natural selection !
Humans can cause evolution to occur - unatural/artificial selection !
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Concept of Chemical Evolution - Francis Crick!
!
Francis Crick:!
Predictions:!
1.Double helix!
2.Adaptor from the language of DNA to the language of proteins!
3.RNA World Hypothesis !
!
!
What does RNA World Mean?
Self catalyzing self replicating molecule!
Is it true that RNA is catalytic? !
RNA - functions that are specific such as:!
1. Recognition and binding!
2. Catalysis !
What does it catalyze?!
The recombination of nucleic acids !
If RNA wasn't not only catalytic but if it could not catalyze the recombination specific
sequences then the RNA World could not exist!
It does catalyzes, recombination and synthesis of formation of peptide bonds!
If there is a way to come up with life starting with dead things, !
There is no theory to explain life other than that dead things evolved!
We cannot explain this using the 5 LAWS!
!
!
Central Dogma - Crick: reproduce diagram midterm!
!
We need RNA primer for DNA pol to work!
RNA can start synthesizing without a template !
Telomerase!
!
RNA gives us proteins !
Who is the catalysts? rRNA is the catalyst !
!
LIFE!
Midterm - reproduce table midterm
"Life is a good design of polymers that works"
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