Class Notes (839,242)
Canada (511,223)
Biology (528)
BLG 143 (42)

Chap no. 5 Intro to carbohydrates.docx

3 Pages

Course Code
BLG 143
Lynda Mc Carthy

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Chap no. 5- An Introduction to Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: the term refers to monomers called monosaccharides, small polymers called oligosaccharides and large polymers called polysaccharides. ● The chemical formula of carbohydrates/sugars is ❑ , n refers to no. of carbon- ❑❑ hydrate groups. ● These molecules consist of carbonyl group and several hydroxyl groups (-OH). 5.1 Sugars as monomers ● Sugars provide chemical energy in cells and act as building blocks for more complex molecules. ● Monosaccharides differ from each other in three ways: ○ position of carbonyl group ○ no. of carbon atoms ○ different arrangement of hydroxyl groups and alternative ring forms. ● The presence of carbonyl group along with multiple hydroxyl groups provides an array of functional groups in sugars. ● Ribose- acts as building blocks for nucleotides, 5 carbons ● Pentose- the glucose that is coursing through our bloodstream ● Hexose- 6 carbon sugar used by body cells ● Each monosaccharide has a unique structure and function Structure of monosaccharides: ● sugars normally form rings, not linear chains in aqueous solutions. ● carbon-1 in linear chain forms bond with oxygen and hydroxyl group. ● new hydroxyl group on C-1 either below or above plane of the ring. 5.2 Structure of Polysaccharides: ● Polysaccharides- polymers that form when monosaccharides are linked together. ● Disaccharides-simples polysaccharides consisting of two sugars ● Glycosidic linkages- simple sugars polymerize when a condensation reaction occurs between two hydroxyl groups resulting in a covalent bond. ● the location of geometry of glycosidic linkages can vary widely among polysaccharides due to the presence of different (-OH) groups. Structure of Starch: energy storage in plants ● glucose monomers joined by glycosidic linkages ● the angle b/w C-1 &C-4 causes the coiling into helix ● a mixture of two polysaccharides: ○ amylose-unbranched ○ amylopectin-branched ● branching occurs (every 30 monomers)when glycosidic linkages form b/w C1 from one strand and C6 on another Structure of glycogen: energy storage in animals ● animals-store sugar/glycogen in liver, muscles. ● nearly identical to starch except many more branches (every 10 monomers) ● when exercising enzymes break glycogen into glucose Structure of cellulose: structural function in plants ● Cellulose- a major component of plant cell wall, very strong ● polymer of glucose monomers linked by linkages ● adjacent monomers flipped: allows parallel strands to be hydrogen bonded and generates linear molecules Structure of Chitin: ● Chitin-stiffens cell walls of fungi, important component of external skeletons of insects and crustaceans. ● polymer of N-acetylglucosamine monomers
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.