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Chap no. 5 Intro to carbohydrates.docx

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Department
Biology
Course Code
BLG 143
Professor
Lynda Mc Carthy

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Chap no. 5- An Introduction to Carbohydrates Carbohydrates: the term refers to monomers called monosaccharides, small polymers called oligosaccharides and large polymers called polysaccharides. ● The chemical formula of carbohydrates/sugars is ❑ , n refers to no. of carbon- ❑❑ hydrate groups. ● These molecules consist of carbonyl group and several hydroxyl groups (-OH). 5.1 Sugars as monomers ● Sugars provide chemical energy in cells and act as building blocks for more complex molecules. ● Monosaccharides differ from each other in three ways: ○ position of carbonyl group ○ no. of carbon atoms ○ different arrangement of hydroxyl groups and alternative ring forms. ● The presence of carbonyl group along with multiple hydroxyl groups provides an array of functional groups in sugars. ● Ribose- acts as building blocks for nucleotides, 5 carbons ● Pentose- the glucose that is coursing through our bloodstream ● Hexose- 6 carbon sugar used by body cells ● Each monosaccharide has a unique structure and function Structure of monosaccharides: ● sugars normally form rings, not linear chains in aqueous solutions. ● carbon-1 in linear chain forms bond with oxygen and hydroxyl group. ● new hydroxyl group on C-1 either below or above plane of the ring. 5.2 Structure of Polysaccharides: ● Polysaccharides- polymers that form when monosaccharides are linked together. ● Disaccharides-simples polysaccharides consisting of two sugars ● Glycosidic linkages- simple sugars polymerize when a condensation reaction occurs between two hydroxyl groups resulting in a covalent bond. ● the location of geometry of glycosidic linkages can vary widely among polysaccharides due to the presence of different (-OH) groups. Structure of Starch: energy storage in plants ● glucose monomers joined by glycosidic linkages ● the angle b/w C-1 &C-4 causes the coiling into helix ● a mixture of two polysaccharides: ○ amylose-unbranched ○ amylopectin-branched ● branching occurs (every 30 monomers)when glycosidic linkages form b/w C1 from one strand and C6 on another Structure of glycogen: energy storage in animals ● animals-store sugar/glycogen in liver, muscles. ● nearly identical to starch except many more branches (every 10 monomers) ● when exercising enzymes break glycogen into glucose Structure of cellulose: structural function in plants ● Cellulose- a major component of plant cell wall, very strong ● polymer of glucose monomers linked by linkages ● adjacent monomers flipped: allows parallel strands to be hydrogen bonded and generates linear molecules Structure of Chitin: ● Chitin-stiffens cell walls of fungi, important component of external skeletons of insects and crustaceans. ● polymer of N-acetylglucosamine monomers
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