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Lecture 6

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BLG 311
Ross Mc Naughton

1. Which of the following statements about evolution is NOT true? a. Evolution is descent with modification b. Evolution is changes in the average phenotype present in a population over time c. Evolution is the origin of new traits from modification to traits present in ancestors d. Evolution is changes in allele frequencies in a population across generations e. Evolution is changes in the heritable traits present in a population over time 2. What are adaptations? a. Traits that maximize an organism’s lifetime reproductive success b. Traits that can increase in frequency due to natural selection c. Traits that increase the ability of an organism to survive and reproduce relative to others without the trait d. A and B e. B and C 3. What is the definition of Natural Selection a. Differential reproductive success of individuals with different phenotypes b. Differential reproductive success of individuals with different genotypes c. Differential reproductive success of individuals in different environments d. All of the above e. None of the above 4. Which of the following best describes vestigial structures? a. Vestigial structures are similar structurally and functionally to comparable structures in other organisms b. Vestigial structures are small structures that are not present in close relatives c. Vestigial structures have not yet been identified in humans d. Vestigial structures are well-developed structures that have a different function in close relative e. Vestigial structures are functionless or rudimentary homologs of characters that are functional in close relatives 5. Which of the following states is true? a. Natural selection acts directly on phenotypes b. Natural selection usually results in a n immediate increase in population variation c. Natural selection cannot be progressive because of its random nature d. Natural selection generally leads to perfection of existing traits e. Natural selection acts on populations, but its consequences occur in individuals 6. What is the original source of genetic variation in populations? a. Natural selection b. Non-random mating c. Mutation d. Migration e. Genetic drift 7. What is another word for ‘shared derived trait’? a. Parsimony b. Persimmon c. Analogy d. Synapomorphy e. Homology 8. At the conclusion of experiment, you test for an effect of treatment X on variable Y and find that p = 0.05. What can you conclude? a. The difference between your treatment groups is small b. X has no effect on Y c. 95/100 times, your result suggests a significant effect d. You need a large sample size to test for an effect e. None of the above 9. What are Darwin’s four postulates? a. Variability, sexual reproduction, struggle for existence, nonrandom mating b. Mutation, migration, selection, drift c. Introduction of alleles by mutation, gene flow, selection, fixation of novel alleles d. Variability, heritability, struggles for existence, nonrandom lifetime reproduction 10. Which of the following modern techniques, unknown to Darwin, has contradicted Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection? a. Mendelian Genetics b. Population Genetics c. Radiometric Dating d. All of the above e. None of the above 11. What aspect of biology could not be explained by evolutionary theories prior to Darwin? a. Life b. Adaptation c. Diversity d. All of the above e. None of the above 12. By studying medium ground finch populations over the course of several decades, the Grants and their colleagues have demonstrated that, during drought years, natural selection favours birds with _______ beaks; during wet years, natural selection favours birds with _______ beaks. a. Deep/shallow b. Shallow/shallow c. Shallow/deep d. Deep/deep 13. Comparative studies in primates and bats suggest that testes size evolution is affected by: a. Sperm competition b. Body size c. Likelihood of female mating with more than one male during a fertile period d. A and C only e. All of the above 14. In the study of function of wing marking and waving in fruit flies, there was one treatment in which researchers cut off the wings of fruit flies and then replaced them on the same fly. What was the function of this treatment? a. To control for effects of wing surgery on risk of predation b. To investigate the effect of waving without markings. c. To control for effects of wing marking on detection by predators d. All of the above e. None of the above 15. What do we mean when we say that the genetic code is redundant? a. Humans have more DNA than is ever transcribed and translated b. Some codons code for more than one amino acid c. Some amino acids are coded for by more than one codon d. Some genes have multiple alleles e. Some genes affect more than one trait The graph below shows the beak lengths in a soapberry bug population in Florida from 1880 to 1980. Answer questions 16 – 17 based on your understanding of this ‘natural experiment.’ 16. What event in 1930 affected the evolution of beaks in soap berry bugs in Florida? a. The migration of a small group of soapberry bugs from Texas to Florida b. The introduction of a new insect species that competed directly with soapberry bugs c. A drought affected food availability for soapberry bugs d. Extreme summer temperatures killed 90% of the population of soapberry bugs e. The introduction of a new plant species that could be consumed by soapberry bugs 17. Which of the following figures would best represent the relationship between fitness and beak lengths of soapberry bugs in this population between 1930 and 1980? a. Graph A b. Graph B c. Graph C d. Graph D e. Graph E 18. Why does mutation allow rarely causes significant allele frequency change? a. The same mutation is unlikely to arise in many individuals in any generation b. Selection leads to the loss of mutative alleles c. Point mutation usually create recessive alleles rather than dominant alleles d. Phenotypic changes due to mutations occur in jumps e. Most individuals in most populations do not carry a detectable mutation 19. Sickle cell anemia may be maintained in populations because individuals that carry one sickle cell allele are also: a. Resistant to malaria b. Resistant to dwarfism c. Resistant to cystic fibrosis d. Resistant to typhoid fever e. Resistant to lung infections 20. Which of the following structures are analogous? a. The flipper of a seal and the hoof horse b. The tail fin of a whale and the tail fin of a shark c. The tail of a tadpole and the human tailbone d. The wings of a dragonfly and a cricket e. None of the above 21. How do transitional forms provide evidence for evolution? a. They illustrate the inheritance of acquired characteristics b. They are a ‘missing link’ in the evolution of taxon from a different, pre existing taxon c. They identify the location of transitions between strata in the geologic column d. They show that traits of more than one taxon can coexist in a living organism e. All of the above 22. Mutation rates may vary across species because in each species there is a trade-off between: a. Effects of chemical mutagens and effects of point mutations b. Speed and accuracy of DNA replication c. µ and S d. DNA polymerase size and efficiency e. Mutation and selection 23. What is the first step in determining the evolutionary history of a trait using the fossil record? a. Determine the homologous structure in an ancestor b. Outline the transformational sequence that lead to the trait in its present form c. Identify the fitness value of the trait d. Use phylogeny to determine independent contrasts e. Identify the environmental factors that lead to changes in the trait 24. Why do the muscles at the base of hair follicles in human provide evidence for Darwin’s theory of evolution? a. They suggest a ‘missing link’ between other primates and humans b. They are similar in structure but arise from different tissues during development c. They demonstrate that traits that reduce fitness can be maintained in populations d. They function in aggressive signals in other primates, but have no known function in humans e. They result in ‘goose bumps’ which are adaptive responses to low temperature in humans Answer question 25 to 27 based on the graph and information below 25. Which of the two lines on the graph represent the survival of the ‘NO SELECTION’ lines? a. The dotted line b. The solid line 26. Why did the researches create the ‘NO SELECTION’ lines? a. To create lines in which C. elegans fitness would be maintained over time b. To ensure the accumulation of deleteriou
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