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Lecture

Phenotype

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Department
Biology
Course
BLG 312
Professor
Franklyn Prescod
Semester
Fall

Description
 Any measure of intelligence is best viewed as an index of the phenotype  Its critical to recognize that various clinical syndromes are disorders of the phenotype not of the genotype  Only the genotypes for these disorders can be inherited. Whether the genotype will eventually will come out in the phenotypic beh disorder depends on environment and experience.  A predisposition also known as a diathesis may be inherited but not the disorder itself  The study of genetics has relied on 4 basic methods to uncover whether a predisposition for psychopathology is inherited: comparison of members of a family, comparison of pairs of twins, the investigation of adoptees, and linkage analysis  The family method can be used to study a genetic predisposition among members of a family cuz the average # of genes shared by two blood relative is known  Parents and kids are identical in 50% of their genetic background. Ppl who share 50% of their genes with a given person are called first degree relatives of that person  Nephews and nieces share 25% of the genetic makeup of an uncle and are called second degree relatives  A sample of ppl who bear the diagnosis in question- these ppl are referred to as index cases or probands  If the genetic predisposition being studied is present 1 degree relatives of the index cases should have the disorder at a higher rate than that found in the general population. Ex: about 10% of the 1 degree relatives of index cases with schitzo can be diagnosed as having shcitzo compared with about 1% of the general population  In the twin method both monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins are compared. MZ twins develop from a single fertilized egg and are genetically the same  DZ or fraternal develop from separate eggs and are on average only 50% alike genetically  MZ twins are always the same sex but DZ twins can be either the same or opposite  When the twins are similar diagnostically they are said to be concordant  If its said that a predisposition for a mental disorder can be inherited , concordance should be greater in genetically identical MZ pairs than in DZ pairs. When the MZ concordance rate is higher than the DZ rate the characteristics being studied is said to be heritable  Data shows that panic disorder runs in families but that a genetic predispo
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