BLG 144 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Phytophthora Infestans, Symbiogenesis, Red Algae

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5 May 2015
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Chapter 29 – Protists
DOMAIN EUKARYA key features:
1. have nuclear envelope
2. complex organelles
3. multicellular organisms
4. most sexually reproduce
FIRST EUKARYOTES WERE SINGLE CELLED
Protists belong to the kingdom Protista part of the domain Eukarya
Protists ARE NOT a monophyletic clade > fungi, animals, and land plants ARE NOT protists
often unicellular
mixotrophs: protists that can switch between heterotroph and phototroph
Protist Importance:
1. Organism’s health
: pathogenic protists in plants and animals,
Examples:
1. malaria
2. crop failure (potato blight, parasitic fungus-like protist)
3. Harmful algae blooms: produce toxins
2. Ecological Importance
a) Food chains/webs, primary producers ultimate source of energy
Microscopy: study of cellular level structure
7 major groups of eukaryotes morphology:
Synapomorphies: shared derived traits from a common ancestor
Unikonta: includes ameobozoa, and opisthokonta
Bikonta: Chromalveolata
How did a proto eukaryote evolve to modern heterotrophic eukaryote?
Infolding hypothesis: plasma membrane folds creating ER and nuclear envelope, folds
over time and detach
Separates genome transcription and translation by forming ^ (controls gene expression)
How did the mitochondrion originate?
Endosymbiosis theory: an aerobic bacterium was engulfed which provided lots of ATP for the
cell and in return got carbon compounds
EVIDENCE:
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