BLG 144 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Phytophthora Infestans, Symbiogenesis, Red Algae

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5 May 2015

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Chapter 29 – Protists
DOMAIN EUKARYA key features:
1. have nuclear envelope
2. complex organelles
3. multicellular organisms
4. most sexually reproduce
Protists belong to the kingdom Protista part of the domain Eukarya
Protists ARE NOT a monophyletic clade > fungi, animals, and land plants ARE NOT protists
often unicellular
mixotrophs: protists that can switch between heterotroph and phototroph
Protist Importance:
1. Organism’s health
: pathogenic protists in plants and animals,
1. malaria
2. crop failure (potato blight, parasitic fungus-like protist)
3. Harmful algae blooms: produce toxins
2. Ecological Importance
a) Food chains/webs, primary producers ultimate source of energy
Microscopy: study of cellular level structure
7 major groups of eukaryotes morphology:
Synapomorphies: shared derived traits from a common ancestor
Unikonta: includes ameobozoa, and opisthokonta
Bikonta: Chromalveolata
How did a proto eukaryote evolve to modern heterotrophic eukaryote?
Infolding hypothesis: plasma membrane folds creating ER and nuclear envelope, folds
over time and detach
Separates genome transcription and translation by forming ^ (controls gene expression)
How did the mitochondrion originate?
Endosymbiosis theory: an aerobic bacterium was engulfed which provided lots of ATP for the
cell and in return got carbon compounds
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