BLG 144 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Plate Tectonics, Convergent Evolution, Phenetics

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5 May 2015
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TREE OF LIFE
oPhylogeny: evolutionary history of a species
oSystemation: naming and classifying of organisms based on their phylogeny
oBranches = formation of new linages
oShows evolutionary change through ancestor-descendent relationships
oBased on level of trait sharing
1. Phenetics: overall similarly of different organisms
2. Cladistics: sharing of synapomorphies (unique and derived)
*shared traits are homologous*
(Analogy) Convergent evolution: evolution of similar traits in distantly related species, put under
similar selective pressures, however has different lineages (Homoplasies)
Shared Genes are
passed down to decedents, duplicated genes mean a unique event occurred
Parsimonious – KISS – the most simple explanation is the best one
FOSSIL RECORD – direct evidence of evolution
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