BLG 144 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Natural Selection, Special Creation, Cestoda

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15 Aug 2016
Chapter 24: Evolution by Natural selection
Theory of special creation: 1. All species are independent
2. Earth is young, only 6000 years old
3. species are unchanging
Plato - species are created by God and are unchanging (FIXED)
- typological thinking—species are UNCHANGING and VARIATION IS MISLEADING
Aristotle - Great Chain of Being—ladder shows fixed orgs by their INCREASED SIZE AND COMPLEXITY
(humans top)
Lamarck - proposed theory of evolution—species are not static but change through time by:
1. spontaneous generation—orgs move up the latter of GCB over time
2. inheritance by acquired PHENOTYPIC traits (wrong)—giraffe with long neck b/c of
fighting for males with other competition and long neck kills short not that they stretch
it for food
Darwin and Wallace - diverse and change
- evolution—species change over time b/c TRAITS VARY + only CERTAIN ALLELES ARE
- population thinking—variations among individual is key to understand the nature of
The theory of evolution by natural selection is revolutionary b/c 1. Overturns species being static
2. replaced typological thinking with pop
3. scientific with mechanism
Descent with modification—descendant species (different) came from ancestral species
Theory of evolution by natural selection: 1. Species change through time
2. + related by common ancestor
1. Evidence for change through time:
- vastness of geologic time:
- geologic time scale based on rock formation
- SEDIMENTARY ROCKS—where fossils are found
- many layers through radioisotopes—conclusion = life on earth is ancient
- extinction
- Irish elk—to huge to be overlooked thus it must be extinct
- if extinction never happened then we’d all be here
- transitional feature linking older to young
- law of succession—fossils look like living species of today found in SAME AREA
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