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Lecture 11

BLG 151 Lecture 11: Chapter 11 (continued part 11.9-11.11) notes

8 Pages

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BLG 151
Martina Hausner

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11.9 Catabolism of Organic Molecules Other Than Glucose Catabolism of Other Carbohydrates Many different carbohydrates can serve as energy source Carbohydrates can be supplied externally or internally (from internal reserves) Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: converted to other sugars that enter glycolytic pathway Disaccharides and polysaccharides: cleaved by hydrolases or phosphorylases Polysaccharides: degraded by bacteria, archaea and fungi (exoenzymes) Difficult to degrade: Cellulose: extracellular cellulases produced by fungi and some bacteria Agar: agarose produced by some actinomycetes and cytophaga from marine habitats Pectin: some soil bacteria and plant pathogens Lignin: mostly fungi Reserve Polymers Used as energy sources in abdsence of external nutrients Example: glycogen and starch Cleaved by phosphorylases (glucose) n Pi (glucose) n1 glucose1P Glucose1P enters glycolytic pathway Example: polyhydroxybutyrate PHB acetylCoA AcetylCoA enters TCA cycle Lipid Catabolism Triglycerides Common energy sources Hydrolyzed to glycerol and fatty acids by lipases Glycerol degraded via Embden Meyerhof pathway Fatty acids often oxidized via betaoxidation pathway 2 carbon units are released as acetyl coA and fed into the TCA cycle or used in biosynthesis NADHand FADH2 are also produced ETC Some microorganisms can utilize petroleum hydrocarbons Protein and Amino Acid Catabolism Protease: hydrolyzes protein to amino acids Deamination: removal of amino group from amino acid Can occur through transamination: the alpha amino group of alanine is transferred to the acceptor alphaketoglutyrate
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