Class Notes (905,172)
CA (538,373)
Ryerson (30,377)
BLG (541)
BLG 311 (61)
Lecture

large molecules

4 Pages
119 Views

Department
Biology
Course Code
BLG 311
Professor
Ross Mc Naughton

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
Large Molecules
Monomer (-OH) + Monomer (-H) → Polymer + H2O(l)
o Condensation: monomers (e.g. amino acids) join to form polymers (e.g. proteins)
o Glycosidic bond forms when two carbohydrate monomers join together
o Hydrolysis: break down of a polymer; reverse reaction
Polymers are also called macromolecules (e.g. starch, proteins, triglyceride)
Carbohydrates
Organic molecules in which C, H and O bind together in the ratio Cx(H2O)y
Serve as an energy source important for the brain and cellular respiration
Plants produce carbohydrates by using energy from sunlight
o 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (from sunlight) → C6H12O6(carbohydrate) + 6O2
Animals eat plant materials to obtain the produced carbohydrates
They can then be used in animal metabolism to release energy
o C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy
Monosaccharides
Triose (3 carbons)
Product of respiration and photosynthesis
Pentose (5 carbons)
- Ribose
- Deoxyribose
Found in RNA and DNA
nucleic acids
Hexose (6 carbons)
- Glucose
- Fructose
- Galactose
Source of energy in respiration
Main energy source in brain
Found in sweet-tasting fruits
Disaccharides (two sugar residues)
Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
Transport carbohydrates in plants
Maltose (glucose + glucose)
Formed from digestion of starch
Lactose (glucose + galactose)
Carbohydrates found in milk
Polysaccharides (many sugar residues)
Starch (alpha-glucose)
Main storage of carbohydrates
- in plants
Glycogen (alpha-glucose)
- in humans and animals
Cellulose (beta-glucose)
Important component of the plant cell wall

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Large Molecules  Monomer (-OH) + Monomer (-H) → Polymer + H2O(l) o Condensation: monomers (e.g. amino acids) join to form polymers (e.g. proteins) o Glycosidic bond forms when two carbohydrate monomers join together o Hydrolysis: break down of a polymer; reverse reaction  Polymers are also called macromolecules (e.g. starch, proteins, triglyceride) Carbohydrates  Organic molecules in which C, H and O bind together in the ratio Cx(H2O)y  Serve as an energy source important for the brain and cellular respiration  Plants produce carbohydrates by using energy from sunlight o 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy (from sunlight) → C6H12O6(carbohydrate) + 6O2  Animals eat plant materials to obtain the produced carbohydrates  They can then be used in animal metabolism to release energy o C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy Monosaccharides Triose (3 carbons) Product of respiration and photosynthesis Pentose (5 carbons) Found in RNA and DNA - Ribose nucleic acids - Deoxyribose Hexose (6 carbons) Source of energy in respiration - Glucose Main energy source in brain - Fructose Found in sweet-tasting fruits - Galactose Disaccharides (two sugar residues) Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Transport carbohydrates in plants Maltose (glucose + glucose) Formed from digestion of starch Lactose (glucose + galactose) Carbohydrates found in milk Polysaccharides (many sugar residues) Starch (alpha-glucose) Main storage of carbohydrates - in plants Glycogen (alpha-glucose) - in humans and animals Cellulose (beta-glucose) Important component of the plant cell wall Starch  Consists of amylopectin and amylose (both are made of α-glucose) o Amylopectin is branched via 1,6-glycosidic bonds o Amylose forms a stiff helical structure via 1,4-glycosidic bonds o Both are compact molecules → starch can be stored in small space  The ends are easily broken down to glucose for respiration  Does not affect water potential as it is insoluble  Readily hydrolysed by the enzyme amylase found in the gut and saliva  Major carbohydrate used in plants o Found as granules (chloroplast) o Each granule contains amylopectin combined by a larger amount of amylose  Commonly used sources are corn (maize), wheat, potato, rice Glycogen  Branched, storage, polymer of glucose linked via glycosidic bonds  Found in skeletal muscle and in the liver  Chains are linked by alpha-1,4-linkage, branches are linked by alpha-1,6-linkages  Glycogen is broken down to glucose by glycogenolysis (glycogen phosphorylase)  Major site of daily glucose consumption (75%) is the brain via aerobic pathways  Most of the remainder is utilized by erythrocytes, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle  Glucose is obtained from diets or from amino acids and lactate via gluconeogenesis  Storage of glycogen in liver are considered to be main buffer of blood glucose levels Cellulose  Polysaccharide consisting of long beta-glucose chains  Linked together by hydrogen bonds to form microfibrils  Structural function is a important component of plant cell walls  Its tensile strength helps plant cells in osmosis //cell does not burst in dilute solutions Proteins Structure  Proteins are polymers of amino acids  Proteins are made up by different combinations of 20 amino acids o They have a general structure: o The difference between different amino acids is found in the R-grou
More Less
Unlock Document


Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit