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atomic.docx

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Department
Chemistry
Course
CHY 104
Professor
Tsogbadral Galaabaatar
Semester
Fall

Description
Defects of Rutherford Model Rutherford model of an atom resembles our solar system. It has following defects: 1. According to classical electromagnetic theory, electron being charged body will emit energy continuously. Thus the orbit of the revolving electron becomes smaller and smaller until it would fall into the nucleus and atomic structure would collapse. 2. If revolving electron emits energy continuously then there should be a continuous spectrum but a line spectrum is obtained. (Diagram) Bohr’s Atomic Model Neil Bohr (1913) presented a model of atom which has removed the defects of Rutherford Model. This model was developed for hydrogen atom which has only proton in the nucleus and one electron is revolving around it. Postulates of Bohr’s Atomic Model The main postulates of Bohr’s Model are given below: 1. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in a fixed orbit. 2. As long as electron revolves in a fixed orbit it does not emit and absorb energy. Hence energy of electron remains constant. 3. The orbit nearest to the nucleus is the first orbit and has lowest energy. When an electron absorbs energy it jumps from lower energy orbit to higher energy orbit. Energy is emitted in the form of radiations, when an electron jumps from higher energy orbit to lower energy orbit. The unit of energy emitted in the form of radiations is called quantum. It explains the formation of atomic spectrum. 4. The change in energy is related with the quantum of radiation by the equation : E2 – E1 = hv where E1 = Energy of first orbit E2 = Energy of the second orbit h = Planck’s constant v = Frequency of radiation Atomic Number The number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom is called atomic number or proton number. It is denoted by z. The proton in the nucleus of an atom is equal to nu
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