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chemical composition.docx

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Ryerson University
CHY 104
Tsogbadral Galaabaatar

There are four laws of chemical combinations these laws explained the general feature of chemical change. These laws are: 1. Law of Conservation of Mass 2. Law of Definite Proportions 3. Law of Multiple Proportions 4. Law Reciprocal Proportions Antoine Lavoiser has rejected the worn out ideas about the changes that take place during a chemical reaction. He made careful quantitative measurements in chemical reactions and established that mass is neither created nor nor destroyed in a chemical change. 1. Law of Conservation of Mass Statement It is presented by Lavoiser. It is defined as: “Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but it only changes from one form to another form.” In a chemical reaction, reactants are converted to products. But the total mass of the reactants and products remains the same. The following experiment easily proves law of conservation of mass. Practical Verification (Landolt Experiment) German chemist H. Landolt, studied about fifteen different chemical reactions with a great skill, to test the validity of the law of conservation of mass. For this, he took H.shaped tube and filled the two limbs A and B, with silver nitrate (AgNO3) in limb A and Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) in limb B. The tube was sealed so that material could not escape outside. The tube was weighed initially in a vertical position so that the solution should not intermix with each other. The reactant were mixed by inverting and shaking the tube. The tube was weighed after mixing (on the formation of white precipitate of AgCl). He observed that weight remains same. HCl + AgNO3 ———-> AgCl + NaNO3 2. Law of Definite Proportions Statement It is presented by Proust. It is defined as: “When different elements combine to give a pure compound, the ratio between the masses of these elements will always remain the same.” Proust proved experimentally that compound obtained from difference source will always contain same elements combined together in fixed proportions. Example Water can be obtained from different sources such as river, ocean, well,
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