MARTIN LUTHER 1517: 95 THESES Complaint against the authority of the Pope. Church has
become corrupt, a call for reform.
-Sale of Indulgences ( a remission of temporal punishment due to sin = alleviation of time spent in
purgatory) To raise money for the building of St. Peter's basilica.
-Perceived corruption in Rome. Popes too involved in secular politics.
-Principal evolution of Baroque art related to what happened in Italy.
-1450s Johann Gutenberg invents movable type printing press
-Jesuit Order Formed (1540) St. Ignatius Loyola, special oath of loyalty to the Pope
-Council of Trent (1545-63) Reaffirmed doctrines, purgatory and indulgences, transubstantiation,
hierarchy of priesthood, images of the virgin and saint are to be retained, campaign to spread teachings
of the Catholic faith, war against heresy (Inquisition, Index of forbidden books)
-Central church of the Jesuits. GIACOMO DELLAPORTA ca. 1575-1584: facade of Il Gesu,
-Images that promote and celebrate martyrdom.
BAROQUEART– ENERGY, LIMITLESS SPACE, RICHNESS OFTEXTURE,
THEATRICALITY, RESTLESS MOTION, EXPANSIVENESS, ILLUSION OF SPACE,
INTEREST IN COMPLEXITY etc. EMOTIONALLY STIRRING
FRAANDREA POZZO- 1691-1694: Glorification of St. Ignatius. Ceiling fresco in the nave of Sant
Ignazio, Rome, Italy
GIANLORENZO BERNINI- 1621-22: The Rape of Persephone. Marble.
-Gives the spiritual vision of the Catholic counter-reformation
-1622-24:Apollo & Daphne, Marble.
-1632: Bust of Scipione Borghese (One of Bernini's initial patrons)
-1623: David. Pictured in the peak of the action. Tension in the body & the face.
-1624-1633: Baldacchino, Saint Peter's, Vatican City, Rome, Italy Very distinct reference to
the twisted columns of the old Basilica, given to the Church by the Emperor Constantine, which were
said to have come from the temple of Jerusalem.
-c. 1636-37: Bust of Constanza Bonarelli, marble.
-c.1641-46: Bell Towers, St. Peter's, Rome Built too high, were cracked within a few months. Bell towers were pulled down.
-1645-1653: Ecstasy of St. Teresa, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome,
Italy. Considered by some the best work of his career. Many colours and textures, richness and
complexity. Confusing the realms of the spiritual and the physical.
-1645-1652: Donor Portrait, Cornaro Chapel, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome, Italy
-1656-67: Piazza S Pietro, Vatican, Rome
MICHELANGEO MERISI DACARAVAGGIO
-dramatic realism in his work, places ordinary looking people in a theatrical position
-c.1597: Bacchus. Literal representation of reality. Fruit is rotten, Bacchus's hand is shaking
slightly, ripples in the wine, shakes from the night before.
-Worked without preparatory drawings, painted directly onto the canvas.
-c.a 1597-1601: Calling of St. Matthew.
-TENEBRISM, high contrast chiaroscuro
-1601: The Crucifixion of St. Peter. -
-ca, 1601: Conversion of St. Paul, Cerasi Chapel, Santa Maria del Popolo, Rome, Italy
-c. 1600-1601: Supper at Emmaus. Authenticity at play.Atypical looking X, youthful,
androgynous. Fruit is rotting again. Bowl hanging off of the table.
-1606: Death of the Virgin. Rejected by the monks that comm