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CMN 124 (62)

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CMN 124
Fotios Sarris

Chapter 1 Getting the Message Across Communication - A transactional and relational process involving the meaningful exchange of information. Communication Theory – A system of explaining ideas for explaining communication. Rhetoric – The use of language to persuade an audience Semantics – The study of the words and symbols we choose. Semiotics – The study of how meaning is assigned and understood. Cybernetics – The study of how information is processed and how communication systems function. Communication can be understood in terms of: Situated – It is embedded in a particular environment or socio-cultural context Relational – It involves the ability to interact effectively and ethically according to what is needed at a given moment. Transactional – It is a co-operative activity in which people adapt to one another. For communication to occur there must be a source and a destination. Someone at one end to formulate the message (Any type of oral, or non-verbal communication that is transmitted by a sender to an audience.) and someone at the other end to receive it and respond to it. Sender The participant in the transaction who has an idea and communicates it, by encoding it in a message. (Transmitter or communicator) Encoding – The act of converting ideas into code in order to convey a written, oral, or non- verbal message. The sender must be aware of the receiver’s context to choose the right symbols, gestures, and words to convey the intended meaning. Channel Is the communication pathway or medium over which a message travels. A medium can synchronous (enables the communication to take place directly) such as face – to-face conversation, telephone conversations, Text chat, audio and video conferencing A medium can be asynchronous (Enables the communication to take time for a response) such as E-mail, faxes, weblogs, discussion boards. Receiver The person for whom a message is intended, who decodes the message by extracting meaning from it. The receiver is responsible for decoding (The act of extracting meaning from spoken, written, and non-verbal communication) the message that has been sent by the sender. Certain things may affect the receivers interpretation of the message this is why it should be clear and precise Feedback The receiver’s response to a message that confirms if the original message was received and understood. Can be non-verbal such as a head nod or oral like “umms” and “ahhs” or a written response like from a e-mail or text message. Feedback is a vital part of communication, allowing for clarification and ensuring that the message has been properly understood. Communication Contexts Interpersonal Communication An interactional process between two people ( sender and receiver) also known as Dyadic (a group of two). Usually spontaneous and occurs within a certain context to achieve interpersonal goals. Small group Communication Occurs between three or more people (up to 20). The size of the group must rely on the free interactions of all participants. The links to the participants are vital for success in the intended outcomes. Organizational Communication Communication composed of many interdependent groups focused on common goals. Takes place in large businesses and industries. Individuals assume specialized roles defined by formalized behaviours and rules that are part of an “organizational culture”. Intercultural Communication Messages between people of different cultures. This type of communication needs adaption to account for different socially constructed forms of communication behavior. Mass Communication A small group of people send a message to a large audience. This type of communication is usually indirect and is mediated through radio and television broadcasting, newspapers, or magazine articles. Different from face-to-face public communication. Non – Verbal communication Communication that does not use words but takes place through gestures, eye contact, and facial expressions. How a message is encoded depends of the following non-verbal ways of communication: • Tone, inflection, and other acoustic properties of speech. • Eye gaze and facial expression. • Body movements, body posture, gestures, and touch. • Appearance (bodily characteristics and clothing). • Personal space and the use of time. Non-verbal cues have the power to intensify what is trying to be said. These are powerful indicators of an individual’s feelings and attitudes in verbal communication. Non-verbal communication can play five roles in relation to verbal communication: 1. Repetition – Non-verbal displays can repeat a message that is being delivered verbally in the same interaction. (Instructing a technician to repair “this computer” while pointing at the computer.) 2. Contradiction – Non-verbal messages can conflict with the message an individual is trying to convey verbally, resulting in mixed messages and adding additional challenges to the decoder. (A job candidate says she’s “confident” however she has difficulty maintain eye contact during the interview.) 3. Regulation – Non- verbal displays can also regulate conversations. (Tapping a person on the shoulder to initiate a conversation) 4. Substitution – A non-verbal display can stand for a verbal message as the sole means of communication. Actions speak louder than words. (Team members might guess that an important contract has been lost if the team leader enters the room with a distraught downcast expression. 5. Accenting and complementing – Non-verbal displays can underline, amplify or tone down a verbal message. (Pounding the table while exclaiming “We have to cut our budget, now!”.) Complementary non-verbal cues reinforce or affirm a message, making it easier to remember. (A boss pats an employee on the back while giving praise uses touch to increase the impact of her message) Non-verbal skills and abilities fall into three general domains, all essential to achieving competence as a non-verbal communicator: 1. Encoding (emotional expressivity) - The ability to send non-verbal messages accurately to others. 2. Decoding (emotional sensitivity) – The ability to accurately read another person’s non-verbal cue
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