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Lecture 5

CMN 600 Lecture 5: Week 5-Outputs and Impacts

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Ryerson University
CMN 600
Shiga John

Week 5: Outputs and Impacts Author/messenger/source: Ethos: how does the author establish his or her credibility? 4 ways of establishing ethos: 1. Authorial voice/persona 2. Author’s relation to topic 3. Common ground: author’s characterization of and relation to intended audience 4. Sources Rhetorical Appeals: Spotlight on logos “appeal” – to please or plead Logos: how does the author build logical arguments? 3 possibilities: 1. Toulmin argumentation: logical arguments should provide reader with three elements: a. Claim (main concept or idea) b. Evidence (support for claim; proof of concept) c. Warrant (explains how the evidence supports the claim) 2. Organizing arguments in logical manner Information Structure: AIDA “purchasing funnel” - AIDA: awareness (or attention), interest, desire, action - Title and introduction should capture interest, establish ethos - Body paragraphs should build interest in topic and generate desire for involvement, action - Conclusion should reaffirm ethos, key messages and call to action o What is the audience encouraged to do (think, feel and act) now that they have read the message? Structure: the lead - The lead (or lead-in- or introduction to the story) does 3 things: o 1) identifies the central idea or theme of the story ▪ Who, what, where, when, why, how o 2) explains why the event is unique, relevant to reader, significant, or newsworthy ▪ So what o 3) entices the reader to keep reading ▪ Why should I spend my time here Types of leads: 1. Direct (or hard) lead: first sentence tells the reader the most important aspects of the story all at once (breaking news stories). Traditional journalistic format – explains all the key facts in 35 words or less 2. Delayed (or soft) lead: theme or significance of the story introduced gradually over several paragraphs. Entices the reader to keep reading by hinting and gradually disclosing story’s contents. More recent style in journalism which borrows storytelling techniques from literary fiction Narrative: - Narratives are stories that people tell about themselves and their world which help to structure the meaning of texts - All narratives have: o A temporal structure which organizes events into past, present and future (which may or may not correspond to the beginning, middle, end of the story) o A storyteller (authorial persona and or narrator) o An implied audience (listener/reader) Narrative Analysis: All stories have 2 components: 1. Content: what the story is about a. Eve
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