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Lecture 6

CRM204: Week 6 (Oct. 17th).docx

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Ryerson University
CRM 204
Smita Tyagi

th CRM 204 –Criminal Justice Research and Statistics (October 17 , 2012) Sampling error - Difference between a sample and a population from which it is selected. Non-Sampling error - Difference between the sample and population caused by deficiencies in sampling such as inadequate sampling frame or non-response or poorly designed measures or from flawed data processing. Non-response - A source of non-sampling error that occurs whenever some members of the sample refuse to co-operate, cannot be contacted or cannot supply the data required. Chapter 8: Survey Research Widespread use of surveys -Development of statistical techniques -Development of scales and indexes to measure quantitative data in a systematic way -Broad applications discovered  Versatility  Efficiency  Generalizability  Omnibus survey  Survey Questions  Open-ended or interpretive questions  Closed ended or fixed choice questions Pre-testing is a MUST!  Clear and Meaningful questions  Be clear not ambiguous  Check reading levels of respondents first  Avoid leading questions  Avoid double barrelled questions  Avoid double negatives  Avoid emotional language and prestige bias  Avoid asking questions beyond the person’s capability  Avoid overlapping or unbalanced response categories  Use contingency or skip questions  Clear and meaningful questions (Cont’d)  Reframe potentially threatening questions (Social desirability can cause overreporting or underreporting)  Choose wisely between open and closed questions  Consider question order or sequence of questions  Be ware of aiding respondent recall  Consider using rating or ranking questions  Consider trade-off between gathering lots of data and gathering less data but accurate (and complete) data  Demographic questions (Tombstone data)  Survey Questionnaires Cover letter  Personalized  Credible  Interesting  Responsible  Design of the Survey Electronic surveys and web surveys (Refer class hand-out on online surveys)  Survey monkey  Mailed Self-Administered Surveys (Page 232-233)  Attractive  Less use of contingent questions  Clear and understandable  Less use of open-ended questions  Personalized, professional cover letter  Credible research sponsor  Identifying code on each questionnaire  Use of incentive
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