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Lecture 2

CRM204: Week 2 (Sept. 12th).docx

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Ryerson University
CRM 204
Smita Tyagi

thCRM 204 Criminal Justice Research and Statistics September 12 2012Theory and Data in ResearchTheory is critical to research critical link between the two Theory influences research which in turn influences theory Links between data and theory Deductive and inductive reasoning deductive research uses extrapolation from a set of factsMakings of a Good Theorygood question Neuman LW Wiegand BWinterdyk AJ 2004 Criminal Justice Research Methods Quantitative and Qualitative approaches Toronto Pearson Chapter 3It can be empirically tested if it cant be refute its declarative statement tested its not a good theory It can effective in predicting the strength It best fits the research which theory and nature of the associations between the works Labeling feminist etcvariablesIt specifies a range of explanatory powerIt focuses on relevant issues do not throw It includes all stated relationships that can in random variables be observedmeasured to support or It is parsimoniousParsimony Parsimony in science refers to the principle that a hypothesis or theory should explain as much as possible with the least possible complexity The simplest or most parsimonious explanations rank higher provided they explain equally In order to improve or refine a scientific theory the new improvement must be parsimonious In other words it must not only explain the weakness it attempts to explain but additional weaknesses as well This requirement comes from the work of Karl Popper and is intended to prevent patchwork theories or to see them replaced with sounder ideas list examples for committing sexual crimes pressure personality psychopathy sociology deviancy history of abuse sexual desires opportunity copycat crime lack of selfcontrol mental health issues cultural history media influence substance abusePathways Theory Social research philosophies Chapter 3 Pages 7178Positivism objective reality that exists apart from the observes goal of science is to discover this objective reality and to advance scientific knowledge facts stand alone subjects are not on the same level as the researcherassumptions about positivism Research Process Test ideas against empirical reality Carry out systematic investigations use tools of scienceDocument all procedures be transparent
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