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Lecture 2

CRM300 - Week 2 - September 11: History of Policing.docx

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CRM 300
Jennifer Fraser

CMR300 – HISTORY OF POLICING Week 2: September 11, 2013 HISTORY AS INTERPRETATION: - What does it mean and what assumptions do we make when we “do history”? - History of criminology: - The product of “a convergence of ideas” - Not a science that was “destined to appear” - Involves choices and value judgments; i.e., what is “important” or “necessary” to include? (traditional history looks for “objective” history, yet as we know, there is no such thing as objective history) (there is an assumption that history is linear, easily traceable) (often, history is told by the “victor” and their glory is remembered as the truth) th th CRIME CONTROL IN 16 and 17 CENTURY, ENGLAND - Before this time, policing was private, informal and local in the shire-states (this was before the industrial revolution, it was the responsibility of the village to take control of the policing for their own village not necessarily by naming their own police officers, but by dealing with crime or deviant behaviour in their own way) - (“hue and cry”) (everybody in the community was involved in this system, to apprehend that criminal, which make the community tight-knit since everyone wanted to belong to that community and feel safe) - eventually, hue and cry became standardized and part of the legislation 1285 - once villages become larger, they would select a few to carry out this policing, and these were the first constables we can see in history - There is a massive growth of the city and a lot more mobility as England moves from an agricultural society to an industrialized society - Increasing centralization of policing in London - More laws being created (with more laws being created, there is a greater need for policing) - Problem with vigilantes - Chronic corruption (lots of examples where police don’t uphold the laws, such as slipping licences under the table to alehouses) EMERGENCE OF MODERN POLICING - Sir Robert Peel - Father of modern policing - Home Secretary in 1822 (his goal was to establish a police force available 24 hours a day) - The Metropolitan Act, 1829 - First full-time police force - 1,000 unarmed police (this is getting a lot of support because citizens don’t want to live in a city with thieves, etc. The upper class wanted the police to protect them from the lower class, but Peel wanted to help EVERYONE) (Peel wanted to hire the lower class, and from outside the state) PEEL’S PRINCIPLES 1. The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions 3. Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of life 4. The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force 5. Police seek and preserve public favour not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law 6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of the law or to restore order only when the exercise of permission, advice and warning is found to be insufficient (police should exhaust all other methods before the use of physical force) 7. Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are public and the public are police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence 8. Police should always direct their actions strictly towards their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of judiciary 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it THE INSPECTION SOCIETY - 1856 County and Borough Police Ace (an expansion act, for the police to operate not just locally)& 1868 Local Government Act (this act gave them the power to regulate the poor both morally and socially) - Conduct functions under the “administrative state” - Inspection of lodging houses - Surveying of roads & bridges - Impounding of cattle (the rich/upper class tend to have power, and expect the police to protect them against the more dangerous classes (i.e. lower classes); and if the rich use the police as a tool of “protection”, the lower class see the police as “oppressive” which unfortunately meant that the way police treated Englanders during that time depended on their social class) - 1864 Contagious Disease Act (passed in response to report of Venereal Disease, and allowed the police to arrest “prostitutes” or anyone suspected, and force them to go to the hospital and undergo and invasive vaginal exam for VD) (If found to have VD, she would be forced to stay in the hospital for up to a year or face up to three months of prison if she refused) - 1870 Education Act (school as a form of social control function, and introduced universal education) (opposition: people thought children could be brainwashed) - These acts demonstrate ways the governments, by creating these laws, wanted the policing towards a certain class of peo
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