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Lecture 5

CRM300: Week 5 - Police Cutlure.docx

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CRM 300
Jennifer Fraser

CRM312 – “Police Culture” nd Week 5: October 2 , 2013 CHOOSING THE JOB - Ipsos Reid Survey of Youth (2010):  30% of youth would consider a police career  3% of youth consider policing their primary choice  [10% felt their race would have some sort of an impact on their chances of becoming a police officer – youth are aware of racial aspects of policing and how some police agencies treat different racialized groups] - Most popular careers: Education, healthcare, technology. Reasons for choosing police:  Help people [interact with community & watch out for their wellbeing, etc.]  Job security  Prestige of profession (Foley et al., 2008) [they see policing as a symbol of power and honour] BASIC VS. PREFERRED QUALIFICATIONS [policing is a very competitive profession] - Basic qualifications: the minimum requirements for candidates applying to police forces [bare minimum = having completed high school] - Preferred qualifications: requirements that increase the competitiveness of applicants seeking employment in policing [most hires that police departments make have an undergraduate degree, tend to be more mature and not directly out of university but have full-time work experience and other life skills such as travelling, working in other countries, lots of volunteer work, speak another language] - [their entire life becomes open for examination when they apply for a policing position to be scrutinized in detail] SCREENING [each screening process has different procedures] - RCMP:  Police Aptitude Battery  Six Factor Personality Questionnaire [measures your agreeableness, independence, methodicalness, extroversion, industriousness, openness to experience]  Police Aptitude Test *test they made themselves, and measures how “smart” you are, your judgement, how logical and rational you are, your writing/spelling skills and comprehension skills, memory test, judgement scenarios, logic problems, math calculations] - OPP & Municipal Police Forces:  Constable Selection System  Police Analytical Thinking Inventory  Written Communication Test  Behavioural Personal Assessment Device for Police - [next step would be in-depth interviews, fitness, polygraph testing and in-depth background check for both careers] - Number of Hirings of Police Officers (2011/2012)  Ontario: 647  Quebec: 423  Alberta: 328  British Columbia: 252  Manitoba: 190  Saskatchewan: 99  Nova Scotia: 43  New Brunswick: 34  Everywhere else: 5 or less (no data for Newfoundland) - Number of Hirings by Major Police Services (2011/2012)  RCMP: 516 [around 10,000 applications a year]  OPP: 242  SQ: 186 [Quebec]  VPS: 7 [Vancouver]  SPVM: 0 [Montreal]  TPS: 0 [Toronto – hiring freeze]  RNC: no data PROMOTING DIVERSITY - “The RCMP is committed to promoting equity by recruiting applicants from a wide range of backgrounds to better reflect our Canadian reality.” [most forces started letting women in the 1960s] - [RCMP says they are making an effort to hire visible minorities, those who identify with the LGBT community, etc.] - The Promise of the OPP (2002): [most diverse force, even won an award for it] “I will: • Seek to understand different perspectives, cultures, lifestyles, creeds and apply that understanding to effect quality policing • Identify candidates for recruitment to enhance the diversity of the O.P.P. workforce reflective of the communities we serve • Adjust the way I work (behave and communicate) by appropriately accommodating others’ basic human rights • Respect the individual dignity and strengths of all people.” PERCENTAGE OF SENIOR OFFICERS BY GENDER, 1986 – 2012 [across all of Canada] - Women:  1986 – 0.2% (6 women all together)  2012 – almost 10% PERCENTAGE OF CONSTABLES BY GENDER [most women are concentrated here in the lower ranks] - Women:  1986 – about 5%  2012 – about 20% FORMAL TRAINING [varies across the country, varies by force – some common ground such as physical training, some focus on academics, learning the law and skills training such as use of force, firearm, to drive a police car and interact with people] - RCMP:  RCMP Academy, Depot Division in Regina, SK [where all the recruits go to for their training and must complete this training to be considered an officer; they learn police sciences (skills, community relations, learning about the law, how to communicate with people, defensive tactics, their firearms & lifestyle subjects such as how to be an upstanding citizen) - Ontario:  Ontario Police College, in Alymer, ON [may also have in-house training]  Ontario Provincial Police Academy, in Orillia, ON  Toronto Police College, in Toronto, ON BUT WHAT IS THE CONTENT OF TRAINING? [not publicly available, which means it’s not open for independent evaluation by researchers or think- tank’s – we have no idea what goes on in police forces] - [There is lots of discussion/argument that police should learn more of the following skills] - “Soft skills”: skills centred on information collection, communication, and conflict resolution [without extreme violence]; empathy & compassion - “Cross-cultural” training - “Sensitivity” training - Career development training – mandatory or optional? - [no follow-up or evaluation so we can’t tell what the effects of these trainings are] SOCIALIZATION (INFORMAL TRAINING) - Primary Socialization [starts from the moment you’re born, and a social life when you get into school; appropriate behaviour] - Secondary Socialization [and a socialization when you enter your profession; there’s a certain socialization when you enter the pol
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