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CRM302 (Criminological Theories)- Lecture 3

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CRM 302
Stephen Muzzatti

CRM302-011 – Week 3 January 29 , 2013 PATHOLOGICAL THEORY - Just philosophers and writers were early proponents of early school criminology, physical scientists were early proponents of pathological theory - Cesare Lombroso is often associated with pathological theory but the history goes further back, such as ancient Greece - First pathological theorist = Hippocrates - often thought about as the “father of medicine” - credited with humoral theory = theory that suggests all human behaviour is determinedly the balance of the body’s four essential fluids: (a) blood (b) black bile (c) yellow bile (d) phlegm - imbalanced humors would push you in a certain direction (if you have more black bile, you would be more melancholic/depressed; if you have more yellow bile, you would be colicky, rowdy/cranky) th th IN THE 16 & 18 CENTURIES: - Giambattista della Porta - wrote “the Human Physiognomy” in 1586 - key characteristics of facial features linking to criminal behaviour: thieves could be distinguished by small ears, bushy eyebrows, small noses, large/open lips and “mobile” (shifty) eyes - Johann Kaspar Lavater - Swiss scholar in physiology and theology - wrote “Physiognomic Fragments” in 1775 - also cited mobile eyes and also pointed out “weak chins” (not defined or prominent), “arrogant noses” (upturned noses) and “beardedness in women”/”beardlessness in men” th IN THE 19 CENTURY (when pathological theory took off): - One of the most well-known and earliest works is by the Austrian anatomists Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim - Phrenology: a pseudoscience/theory that proposed criminal behaviour was determined by the measurements of the human skull (the skull would shape or conform the brain, and the brain was acquainted with the mind (they were seen as the same thing) - the brain was also seen as being made up of multiple faculties/divisions - a “normal” person would have a dynamically balanced faculty (example: 50% aggressive/50%passive) - a 60%aggressive/40%passive could result in one being very confrontational and argumentative, a 75%aggressive/25%passive could result in violent behaviour leading to deviancy - a 60%passive/40%aggressice could result in one being quiet and shy, a 75%passive/25%aggressive could result in one being “wishy-washy” or easily influenced - Benjamin Rush - American doctor known for signing the American Declaration of Independence, one of the founders of the Walnut Street Jail (often referred to as the first modern prison in America – Philadelphia, 1776) - In 1812, Rush wrote the first psychiatric textbook in America (interested in all human behaviour, including criminal behaviour) - Contended mental disorders caused arterial diseases in the brain, and the blood could not flow properly, causing deviant behaviour - Suggested cures: bloodletting (use of leeches), regiments of hot/cold showers, laxatives, concoctions to induce vomiting - Definition of pathological cause and medical cures was very broad, including crimes (lying, drunkenness, and “revolutionia” *opposing the American Revolution in 1812+ because theory is a cultural production) - Misbehaviours were not referred to as so, but were referred to as mental diseases (contemporary examples: homosexuality was considered a mental disease until fairly recently, late 1970’s, transgenderism/intersexism) -Howard Becker - labelling theorist prominent in 1960s, single most influential person in reasons of criminal behaviour - wrote “The Outsiders” (1963) and “Whose Side Are We On?” (1967) - Adolphe Quetelet - wrote “The Propensity to Crime” (1831) - it was followed by Andre-Michel Guerry’s “Essay on moral statistics of France” (1833) - Were both cartographic theorists who together were considered the founders of moral statistics (“natural science”) using probability theory to find differences in crime rate based on climate and seasonal differences (example: cold and rainy days showed more frequent suicide, murder, and assault whereas warm, sunny days showed more frequent thefts/robberies) - All were very influential and caused people to treat the entire population accordingly (example: First Nations being forcibly sterilized) - Example: “drapetomania” was a supposed mental illness described by American physician Samuel A. Cartwright in 1851 that caused black slaves to flee captivity (so, demographic was only enslaved peoples) - We live in a therapeutic society where social ills and misbehaviours are being tribute to sociological/psychiatric reasoning like ADD, ADHD, schizophrenia, etc. - Charles Darwin - English natural scientist - wrote “Origin of the Species” (1859) talks about evolution and development of plants and animals and - “Decent of Man” (1871) discusses the same natural laws like evolution apply to humans as well - Application of Darwinism to aspects of human life like deviant behaviour = social Darwinism - Conventions attached to wealthy Anglo-Saxon Europeans being superior whereas others are seen as inferior and less developed - Houston Stewart Chamberlain - Developed notion of “naturally superior folk nation” (the Aryan race) - White Anglo-Saxons were considered inherently good while others were inherently untrustworthy and prone to all deviant acts) - White Anglos who engaged in crime were not pure; they were either corrupted by the inferior races or were corrupted somewhere along their line of heritage/in their make-up - Cesare Lombroso - fell into the study of crime by chance: he was
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