Criminological theories of crime: biological and psychological positivism. Assumes distinction between normal and deviant based on scientifically measureable factors outside the immediate control of the individual. Individuals are prone to crime based on biological traits. Behaviour is the reflection of biological, genetic psychological factors. Break from classical theory crime is individual choice and free will. Focus on individuals and their genetic differences. Biology: racial make-up sex and brain function. The biological concept that fitness is defined by genes and reproduction. Some species: white men are superior to other races and sexes: e. g. blacks and females are degenerates are inferior to white men. Criminal is born not made (cid:1445)born criminal(cid:1446) based on racial makeup. Racialized criminals: reversion of earlier evolutionary stages of the apes. Females are not able to be criminals lack of genetic makeup and rational thought. Belief that criminal behavior is determined by nature. Genetic makeup sex, skin, colour, bone and hair density.