Class Notes (906,063)
CA (538,595)
Ryerson (30,392)
CRM (812)
CRM 302 (18)
Lecture

CRM302 (Criminological Theories)- Lecture 1

1 Page
124 Views

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRM 302
Professor
Stephen Muzzatti

This preview shows half of the first page. Sign up to view the full page of the document.
CRM302-011 Week 1
Monday, January 14th, 2013
---
WHAT IS THEORY?
- “studying crime and who does it, why they do it and how do we respond?”
- This is a conventional view formed from two ontologies (way of seeing)
1. Structuralist Ontology: the social world is a real thing; it is obdurate and has an objective
existence outside of what we think
2. Interactionist Ontology: reality is constructed by people through interactions to negotiate
meaning
- The differences in ontologies causes the questions in epistemology/ knowledge forming “CRIME-ology”
- Any serious investigation of crime must lead away from crime to prevent focusing on a singular object
- Theory: a statement about how and why facts are related
- For a good theory, it should be based on extensive research, logical reasoning, systematic and
observation
- Avoid broad categories and selective organization (Example: “murder” or “transgressive
behaviour”)
- Do not aim for simplicity: crime is becoming a “bad deed of a bad person” and pathologizing
individuals, alleviating society’s responsibility to ask about social organization/structure
- Question: “Why do we accept such a simple answers to prevent violence or punishing criminals?
- Some responses have been banning guns, giving harsher punishments as deterrence
- We have been conditioned to accept violence, but that does not mean we want violence (just
as we have been conditioned to accept simplistic answers)
- belief in Cartesian common sense is the assumption that the average person is intelligent, and
therefore we search for more answers, going beyond what the media is feeding us
- we do not engage in complex discussion when already engaged in simple discussion
- Alternatives exist, we just need to search and present them
MEASURES OF A GOOD THEORY?
1) Logical Soundness: theory is internally consistent; it does not propose illegal connections (this is a
logic problem)
- Most common logic problem is the time-order effect (to say that event B affected Event A)
- Example: Event A occurs at 10:05AM, Event B occurs at 10:10AM (the ONLY relation that could
possibly exist would be that Event A caused Event B)
- Example: “speeding is a okay because I will probably not get caught or my chances are slim”
(This is a time-order problem because the speeder only has confidence in this fact due to previous
experience, therefore they have experienced Event A (not getting caught) and are able to engage in
Event B (saying they will not get caught)
2) Reconcilability: theory makes sense of existing/opposing facts
- Example: Labelling theory can account for both opposing facts:
1. “What is a typical offender?
A young adult, male, and a minority (according to official crime stats report, OOCS)
2. “What is a typical offender?”
There is no demographic (according to self-reports/surveys)
- Both sites are factual, but contradict
3) Sensitizing Ability: theory can direct our attention to forgotten/overlooked aspects
- Example: suggesting a new way to look at a fact
- Some whose actions are only classified because of who’s watching them (such as over-policing
in the Jane & Finch area; it is much more easy to be caught by police purely because they are in the area
constantly)
- Labelling theory can also account for this (police have labelled Jane & Finch as a trouble area)
FEB 4th Midterm #1 (Units 1 3) | 20%
MAR 11th Midterm #2 (Units 4 7) | 25%

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
CRM302-011 – Week 1 Monday, January 14 , 2013 --- WHAT IS THEORY? - “studying crime and who does it, why they do it and how do we respond?” - This is a conventional view formed from two ontologies (way of seeing) 1. Structuralist Ontology: the social world is a real thing; it is obdurate and has an objective existence outside of what we think 2. Interactionist Ontology: reality is constructed by people through interactions to negotiate meaning - The differences in ontologies causes the questions in epistemology/ knowledge forming “CRIME-ology” - Any serious investigation of crime must lead away from crime to prevent focusing on a singular object - Theory: a statement about how and why facts are related - For a good theory, it should be based on extensive research, logical reasoning, systematic and observation - Avoid broad categories and selective organization (Example: “murder” or “transgressive behaviour”) - Do not aim for simplicity: crime is becoming a “bad deed of a bad person” and pathologizing individuals, alleviating society’s responsibility to ask about social organization/structure - Question: “Why do we accept such a simple answers to prevent violence or punishing criminals?” - Some responses have been banning guns, giving harsher punishments as deterrence - We have been conditioned to accept violence, but that does not mean we want violence (just as we have been conditioned to accept simplistic answers) - belief in Cartesian common sense is the assumption that the average person is intelligent, and therefore we search for more answers, going beyond what the media is feeding us - we do not engage in complex discussion when already engaged in simple discussion - Alternati
More Less
Unlock Document


Only half of the first page are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit