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Wk. 1 - Lecture - Individual vs. Structural - UPDATED

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Ryerson University
Disability Studies
DST 500
Jijian Voronka

DST500 – Lecture #1 - Individual vs. Structural Psychological theorists and theories Sigmund Freud: - Inventor of psychoanalysis - Major theories were formed on the observation of his individual patients, hence: individualist approach as opposed to structural approach - He was convinced that he could apply the individual observations of his patients and apply that on a general basis - Depended heavily on hypnosis of his patients and rid them of their symptoms - Was very famous for his stages of development: o Oral stage: birth until the age of two years, mouth is erogenous zone, pleasure principle, ID dominates because neither ego or super ego has been developed yet o Anal stage: 18 months to 3 years, anus is erogenous zone, potty training, ID and ego conflict o Phallic stage: 3 years to 6 years, genitalia are erogenous zone, the Oedipus complex is son-father competition, the Electra complex is daughter-mother competition o Latency stage: 6 years to puberty o Genital stage: puberty to adult life Alfred Adler: - Participated in Freud’s psychoanalytical circle early on and then eventually split off to elaborate his own theories o Agreed that sex was predominant o But didn’t think that sex was as important as Freud thought it was - Best known for his notion of the inferiority complex o Believed that people invariably harbored feelings of inferiority o Development was a lifelong striving for superiority - Eventually moved on to focus on the relation between the individual and the environment Erikson: - Trained in psychoanalysis; built on Freudian theories - Known for theory of psychosocial development of individuals o Believed that every human being went through stages to reach their full development o Still very focused on the individual o They would talk about the external environment but only in the context of development of the individual 8 stages of development: 1. Trust vs. Mistrust a. Birth to 18 months b. Important events: feeding c. Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust 2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt a. 2 years to 3 years b. Important events: toilet training c. Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and independence d. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in shame and doubt 3. Initiative vs. Guilt a. 3 years to 5 years b. Important events: exploration c. Asserting power and control over the environment d. Success leads to sense of purpose, exerting too much power leads to feelings of guilt 4. Industry vs. inferiority a. Ages 6-11 b. Important events: school c. Need to cope with new social and academic demands – success leads to competence, failure leads to feelings of inferiority d. Impatience and lac
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