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Week 1 - Individual vs. Structural

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Disability Studies
DST 500
Jenna Reid

Week 1: Individual vs. Structural  Individual: involves different perspectives and can potentially change how you understand explanations o Tied with psychological  Theorists of psychologists take their theories from an individual approach 1) Sigmund Freud  Inventor of psychoanalysis: theory of behaviour and development of techniques that impact unconscious motives o As he heavily depended on hypnosis o With the increasing trend of oral, anal, etc. sex, saw that individuals would develop as people  Principal myth-maestro o Many people disagreed with his studies, as he was a sexist which many of his studies were based on 2) Alfred Adler  Participated in Freud’s psychoanalytic circle early on, eventually split off to elaborate on his own theories o Questioned Freud’s theory that sex was predominant in people’s lives o Thought Freud looked too much on the unconscious mind and needed to consider the interpersonal issues as well  Best known for his notion of the inferiority complex: low self-esteem and sense of insecurity, inferiority of not measuring up to standards  Moved on to focus on the relation between the individual and the environment 3) Erik Erikson  Trained in psychoanalysis o Built on Freud’s theories o More concerned with environmental factors  Known for psychosocial development of individuals o Believed that every human went eight stages (of crisis) to reach their full development o How does this relate to us understanding madness? 1. Trust vs. Mistrust: 1 year – infants 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: age 2 – 3 3. Initiative vs. Guilt: age 4 – 5 4. Industry vs. Inferiority: age 6 – 11 5. Identity vs. Role Confusion: teens 6. Intimacy and Solidarity vs. Isolation: early adulthood 7. Generativity vs. Self-Absorption: middle age 8. Integrity vs. Despair: Late Adulthood  If bad parents, will likely have bad children  If consistent in treatment or overprotective, then children will be doubtful 4) Carl Jung  Trained in medicine  Specialized in psychiatry  Connected with the unconscious in the wider world o Dreams that arose from personal experiences and social context = collective unconscious  Highly influential in dream analysis and symbolization Leading Sociologists and Their Theories  Take the structural approach 1) Karl Marx  Class o Need to overcome the 1% o Society is divided; clashing in pursuit of own interests o Spent most of life in
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