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CLD 307 (2)
Lecture

COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT - SLIDES.docx

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Department
Early Childhood Studies
Course
CLD 307
Professor
Sophie Bell
Semester
Winter

Description
Week Two Slides: Piaget’s Theory of Development • Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist whose insightful descriptions of children’s  thinking changed the way we understand cognitive development Some Basic Assumptions  Active “constructers” of knowledge  Interpret, transform, reorganize…  Constantly striving to make sense of the world (Equilibration)  Reconstruct to fit our own existing mental framework (prior knowledge)  biological maturation, physical maturation, social/cultural experiences,  equilibration Basic Tendencies in Thinking  Organization – schemes are the basic building blocks of thinking.  Adaptation:  Assimilation – use existing schemes to make sense of the world.  Try to  fit something new into what we already know.  Accommodation – change existing schemes to respond to a new situation  or develop new ones.  Equilibration ­ Searching for balance  Equilibrium vs disequilibrium Four Stages of Cognitive Development   Infancy: The Sensorimotor Stage  Early Childhood to the Early Elementary Years: The Preoperational stage  Later Elementary to the Middle School Years: The Concrete­Operational Stage  Junior and Senior High School Years: The Formal Operational Stage (Ages 0­2) Piaget’s Six Stages of Sensorimotor Development Stage 1  Inborn reflexes (e.g. sucking, grasping) (0­1 month) Start accommodating to external stimuli Stage 2 Primary circular reactions ­ repeating actions lead to more elaborate  (1­4 months) schemes and coordinated patterns of sensory and motor action.  Stage 3 Secondary circular reactions ­ Increased facility at coordinating schemes;  (4­8 months) repeated actions = reproduced outcomes in the external world  Stage 4 Coordination of secondary circular reactions ­ (8­12 months) Goal directed behaviour (small range of effects) Stage 5 Tertiary circular reactions ­ Exploration and novelty; overt trial and error  (12 – 18 months) experimentation, vary behaviour to produce interesting outcomes Stage 6 Emergence of symbolic­representational ability – transition to preoperational  (18­24 months) Stage (language, pretend play) Preoperational Stage (Ages 2­7) o Growth of Representational Ability o deferred imitation, symbols and signs o Egocentrism o  (e.g. speech, spatial perspectives) o Centration  o focus on salient perceptual features o Static States  o difficulty with transformations o temporal centration o Irreversibility  o difficulty with inversion/compensation Concrete Operational Stage (Ages 7­11) Mental operations on concrete facts and objects  Conservation  Decentering   Transformation  Reversibility  Classes and Relations  Classification  Seriation Formal Operational Stage (Ages 11 – Adult) Thinking no longer tied to concrete objects o Hypothetical inductive and deductive reasoning o Abstract, logical, scientific thinking  Reflective abstraction   thinking about thinking  Adolescent egocentricity Do we all reach the Fourth Stage? Week Three Slides: Piaget Continued Piaget’s Theory of Development II  Contributions of Piaget to the Study of Cognitive Development  The State of Piaget’s Theory Today ◦ Challenges to Piaget’s Theory and Neo­Piagetian Perspectives ◦ Learning from Contemporary Research Piaget’s Contributions  Founded the field of cognitive development  Child as active, self­motivated agent  First attempt to explain process of development  Introduced many useful and interesting concepts  Descriptions of children’s thinking have ecological validity  Influence extended to other areas of development and particularly to education  Drew thousands of researchers to the study of cognitive development Limitations of Piaget’s Theory  Lack of consistency in children’s thinking ◦ Cognitive development is more variable across and within stages ◦ Questions the notion of underlying cognitive structures  Underestimates children’s abilities ◦ Evidence of early emergence of representational thought ◦ Children can be trained to solve problems ◦ task dependent  Overestimates adult’s abilities ◦ Formal operational reasoning not always typical of adult thought  Overlooks influence of cultural and social groups Neo­Piagetian Theory – Key Representative: Robbie Case  Basic tenets of Piaget but draw on aspects of information processing  ◦ Mind as computer analogy  Children develop within specific domains ◦ central conceptual structures  Development the result of increased efficiency and neurological maturation ◦ Biologically based growth of mental capacities ◦ Automatization speeds up processing and frees up capacity for other  cognitive activities Week Four Slides: Vygotsky and Sociocultural Theories Child in a Social Context  • All higher psychological processes have their origins in social interaction – Cognitive processes and social processes are inextricably connected. • Developmental change occurs via the internalization of socially shared  processes. – Psychological functioning is mediated     by cultural tools including language  – technical and psychological tools • Thought is internalized language  – Developmental progression of private speech Socio­Cultural­Historical  • Moment in time and place in which the child develops (Distal) • C
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