ECN 204 Lecture Notes - Frictional Unemployment, Nominal Interest Rate, Real Interest Rate

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Chapter 7 Review
Summary:
7.1 The business cycle
Canada and other industrial economies have gone through periods of
fluctuations in real GDP, employment, and price level.
o Although they have certain phases in common:
Peak
Recession
Trough
Expansion
o Business cycles vary in duration and intensity.
Although economists explain the business cycle in terms of underlying causal
factors such as:
Major innovations
Productivity shocks
Money creation
Financial crises
o They generally agree that the level of total spending is the immediate
determinant of real output and employment.
The business cycle affects all sectors of the economy, though in varying ways
and degrees.
o The cycle has greater effects on output and employment in the capital
goods and durable consumer goods industries than in the services and
nondurable goods industries.
7.2 Unemployment
Economists distinguish among four types of employment:
Frictional
Structural
Cyclical
Seasonal
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o The full-employment or natural rate of unemployment, which is made
up of frictional and structural unemployment, is currently 6-7 percent.
o The presence of part-time and discouraged workers makes it difficult
to measure unemployment accurately.
The GDP gap, which can be either a positive or a negative value, is found by
subtracting potential GDP from actual GDP.
o The economic cost of unemployment, as measured by the GDP gap,
consists of the goods and services forgone by society when its
resources are involuntarily idle.
o Okun’s law suggests that every increase in unemployment by 1
percent about the natural rate causes an additional 2 percent negative
GDP gap.
Unemployment rates vary widely globally.
Unemployment rates differ because nations have different natural rates of
unemployment and often are in different phases of their business cycles.
7.3 Inflation
Inflation is a rise in the general price level and is measured in Canada by the
Consumer Price Index (CPI)
o When inflation occurs, each dollar of income will buy fewer goods and
services than before.
o That is, inflation reduces the purchasing power of money.
Economists distinguish between demand-pull and cost-push (supply-side)
inflation.
o Demand-pull inflation - results from an excess of total spending
relative to the economy’s capacity to produce.
o Cost-push inflation results from abrupt and rapid increases in the
prices of key resources.
o These supply shocks push up per-unit production costs and ultimately
the prices of consumer goods.
7.4 Redistribution effects of inflation
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Document Summary

Canada and other industrial economies have gone through periods of fluctuations in real gdp, employment, and price level: although they have certain phases in common: Expansion: business cycles vary in duration and intensity. Although economists explain the business cycle in terms of underlying causal factors such as: Financial crises: they generally agree that the level of total spending is the immediate determinant of real output and employment. Economists distinguish among four types of employment: Seasonal: the full-employment or natural rate of unemployment, which is made up of frictional and structural unemployment, is currently 6-7 percent, the presence of part-time and discouraged workers makes it difficult to measure unemployment accurately. Unemployment rates differ because nations have different natural rates of unemployment and often are in different phases of their business cycles. Inflation is a rise in the general price level and is measured in canada by the.

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