Introduction To Canadian Criminal Justice
Victimization And The Role Of The Victim In The Criminal Justice System
we were asked if the introductory 2 points were surprising at all, and we concluded as a
class, that no, because we engage in precautionary measures:
Avoidance- we don't put ourselves in situations that would be harmful, or attract
crime. for example, we wouldn't enter a dark ally at night. we would simply not make
stupid decisions, and we would avoid crime altogether. like seeing a bar fight. we wont
join in but may walk away.
Defensive- we carry precautionary methods such as installing alarm systems
around our homes, take self defines classes etc. we take the extra step to ensure our
safer is well honoured.
there is a struggle of competing sides. pueblo vs fair system, not be too harsh or too
lenient with the CJS. how will we balance victim rights with CJS?
- it is sometimes said that there are too many rights to offenders not victims. why?
-without a victim there'll be no realization of a crime. if the victim does not bring to the
attention of a crime it will not be reported. also the black figure of crime.
-as per last class, we were told there is a number of crimes not reported. ex. bar fight.
2) you are more likely to be victimized by someone you know.- this was collaboratively
diced as a class, and was the correct answer.
3) international victimization rates
- canada falls mid range, and Australia is the highest. we are about average. this is
based off of the 2000 survey. in terms of % reported victimization, using the 11 from
survey, avg of 55%.
- avg 16%
- what is the problem with using this type of sampling?
- these surveys are only looking at 11 offences, of which people can be victimized,
so it is only a snapshot. it wont capture everything
- some of the descriptions are pretty broad. when you think of assault, you don't
think of verbal assault, you think of physical, so they are not descriptive
- #'s 9, 10, 11 on chart, they describe the theft as a bicycle from family. so the issue
is how it is repaired. owl the whole family feel victimized as a whole. you usually think as
victimized as a physical assault. but it does include a broad range of minor offences.
- there is also the issue of underreporting. they may not know they were victimized,
and lack of confidence, language barriers, embarrassment, they may fear for their own
personal safety, or they are trying to protect that person. they think its too trivial to
report. ex. door mat stolen reporting can be inconvenient.
in 2009- general social survey did another survey for 8 crime types. results showed 27%
have been a criminal in last 12 months. 37% of criminal incidents went down from 34% in 2004. so essentially less people are reporting. in the case of violent crime. 26% were
reported. survey found certain demographic factors may increase risks of victimization
- being single/ common law
- Living in Western Canada- more in regina than toronto. toronto has the lowest
rate of victimization (violent)
1998-2008 graph shows crime and crime severity is at a downwards trend.
with respect to youth crime
- increased in 2006, first since 2003. violent grew 3% property decreased 3%, and
criminal mischief up by 9%.
chart of youth crime. using critical eye how does it differ from other chart?---> whether
their accused or not.
canada vs. US.
1) canada has 1.81 per 100,000. the trend so crime have been similar between 2
Homicide in Canada 2009
-virtually unchanged from 2008. when you look at police report, some cities in us rival
Why Do Crime Rates Change?
5 reasons, refer to lecture slides.
- report sensitive- some people don't wanna report victimization- neighbourhood you live
- definition, in 60's no virtual bullying, but now there is so this will affect crime rates
- crime rates are actually changing, more or less are actually taking place. white collar
crimes. now they've increased because it is more focused.
Historic Role Of The Victim
a wrong done to an individual was an affair of state and community. adversarial system
does not necessarily serve the victims interest. not only were victims victimized, but
their resolution has now been taken over by the state, and victim has no control or
outcome of the affair. why? so that the court can have consistency. to foes on
rehabilitation not vengeance.
Changes to the role of the victim
- 1) while the offend party is now considered the state the victim should be included
meaningfully. so how do we incorporate the victims in to the case?we are still to focus more on offenders
- 2) also the impact that crime is having is not being taken into consideration. series of in
1980's # of task forces to see the vic