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Lecture 8

ECN510 Notes Lecture 8

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Ryerson University
ECN 510

Lecture Week 8 Food-borne Hazards and Human Health  Transmissible Diseases o Bacteria  Escherichia coli (from drinking water)  Salmonellosis  Botuslim (an illness from bacteria) o Viruses o Parasites  Non-transmissible o Shellfish-associated toxins o Color additives o Bioengineered foods o Obesity o Diabetes Transmissible Diseases  Types of food that are prone to contamination o N.America has one of the food supplies in the world; however, there is a still a significant amount of food-borne illness. o Meat, milk, dairy products, unpasteurized fruit and vegetables juices, raw or undercooked eggs, chicken, tuna, potato and macaroni salads, cream filled pastries, fresh produce, spices, chocolate, seafood o Careless handling can lead to diseases.  Food cannot stay in room temperature for a long time  Hot food and cold food should not be kept in room temperature for a long time and is a perfect environment for bacteria growth  Improper cooking of raw meat contaminated during process can lead to food- borne illnesses.  Cutting boards and kitchen tools. If you cut meat with a cutting tool, do not re- use that tool on cutting vegetables unless proper cleaning of the tool has been done.  Symptoms of Food-borne illnesses o Diarrhea, abdominal cramping, fever, vomiting, headache, sometimes blood in the stool. o Usually lasts only a day or two sometimes 7-10 days o These symptoms for most people are not life threatening and don’t require any medical help most often o Sever e cases may occur in children, older people and those with serious conditions.  Prevention of Food-borne illnesses o The prevention begins in the supermarket  When buying food, always check the labels for expiration dates, don’t buy open packages of meat, don’t buy vegetables from the trunk of a car, don’t buy sushi from a homeless man  Store the product in a safe place (to keep them away from robbers). If the food belongs in the freezer, it must be kept in the freezer.  Food should be prepared in a clean kitchen. Do not clutter the kitchen counter, sink, table and etc.  Clean the sink using a commercial cleaning products or something natural like chlorine bleach (e.g. 1 tspn of bleach in 1 L of water).  Hot food should be kept hot and cold food should be kept food  Cook the food, don’t eat raw foods you cannibal  Store the leftovers in fridge but no longer than 3-4 days. Food should not be left on the table (open environment) for longer than 2 hours.  Wash your hands before handling your foods and after you are done (especially when you are working with meat). o Bacteria: E.coli  Food poisoning usually associated with eating unwashed vegetables and meat contaminated post-slaughter  Grounded beef: very easy to contaminate, often contaminated during the slicing and processing of meat.  Diarrhea, abdominal cramps  Complications: hemolytic uremic syndrome in which the red blood cells are destroyed and kidneys fail (2-7% cases). Recovery stages take a long time. o Bacteria: Salmonella  Very common in daycares; easily transmitted between kids in daycares  Common disease that transfers from animals to humans; especially reptiles (small turtles). A report of children touching turtles get sick. Why? The tiny particles of feces are found all over the turtles skin and are exposed to the human hand and can enter through the mouth and nose if hands are not washed.  Some vegetables can be a source of this disease (e.g. spinach).  Not very serious and does not require treatment o Bacteria: Botulism  Dangerous but very rare and fatal.  The bacteria that causes botulism is clostridium botulinum which produces a nerve toxin leading to the illness  Major source of contamination is homemade canned foods  Commercial canned foods undergo botlinum cook which destroys the toxins using high temperatures (150 F).  Normally found in the soil in the dormant state  Unusual sources: Garlic or herbs stored covered in oil; improperly handled baked potatoes wrapped in aluminum foil; home-canned or fermented fish  There are three types of botulism:  Food botulism o Symptoms:  Very severe  All symptoms are neurological and occur between 12-36 hours after consuming the botulinum toxin  Double and/or blurred vision  Difficulty swallowing, severe constipation  Muscle weakness, lead to body paralysis  Respiratory failure  Wound botulism: open wounds contaminated with bacteria  Infant botulism: consuming the spores of clostridium botulinum; usually by kids o Parasites and Foodborne Illnesses  Very small and can or cannot be seen by the naked eye  Live and reproduce within the tissues and organs of the infected human and animal hosts  May be transmitted from animal to humans, from humans to humans, or from humans to animals  Some are very small; some are visible with the naked eye (e.g. w
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