Protagonist and antagonist remain stable but show key changes in characterization over time. Mcphail"s 1995 version: children are protected (by adults), shielded from violence, sexuality of the tale. Story of grandmother: oral variant, bzou, initiation story. Contemporary little red (youtube): consumer/online, social media audience, Little red riding hood (perrault): warning about female virtue. Little red cap (grimm): socialization of children, rescuer character satire. Some of our oral storytelling practices are continuations of traditions begun in medieval europe (eg, sermons, lectures) In pre-industrial, peasant europe, oral storytelling was a primary means for entertainment and education. Simple narrative structure: often stories of maturation, beginning with hardship, unlikely hero, goes though tests and trials, and fantastic situations, closure for the hero. Linguistic repetition: refrains (eg. i"ll huff and i"ll puff , etc. ) Structural repetition: rule of 3 (characters [eg. sisters], settings, objects, events, builds in a sense of anticipation, memory device, helps in retelling.