2 Context for Cities and Sustainability 2 Review.docx

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Environment and Urban Sustainability
EUS 202
Christopher Greene

CONTEXT FOR CITIES & SUSTAINABILITY PART DOS Strong and Weak Sustainability:  Herman Daly & David Pearce: having enough resources to support future generations  Paradigm: a worldview  worldviews are shaped by culture, religion, experiences.  worldviews affect how we approach problems, and understand  Rees: suggested that there are 2 competing paradigms related to economics  expansionist: belief that sustainability is best approached through free and open markets (right prices & internalizing). No major changes are required  technological expansionism: technology can compensate for vital depleted resources  associates with neoclassical economics: independent of environment  following this path will lead to more wealth, less social inequity, and more power to lead the environment  steady-state (ecological): belief that the expansionist paradigm has contributed to issues of sustainability. Not independent of the environment.  economy is constrained within the environment ( biophysical limits exsist)  Believe the economy and environment are governed by system dynamics (esp. nd 2 law of thermodynamics: entrophy).  assumptions: economy is highly order, maintains itself, energy transformations result in low quality energy, more disorder into the ecosphere  Natural Capital  capital: factor of production; used in the production of goods and services  natural capital: stock of natural assets; can yield goods and services in the future  renewable natural capital: living species and ecosystems; self producing/maintaining (Ex, timber)  replenishable natural capital: nonliving but can be self sustaining (Ex, water)  non-renewable natural capital: inventories  Weak Sustainability:  neoclassical economics: substitutability  man-made can replace natural  goal is met if equal profits are passed to TNG  critism: many of these assets are not interchangeable  Strong Sustainability:  converting natural to man-made is mostly irreversible  assets passed to TNG not adequate  stock of natural assets*  Pricing the Planet  Costanza performed a study to quantify 17 ecosystem services: $33 trillion US  climate regulation, water resources, soil formation, pollination, food production, raw materials, genetic resources, tourism, recreation  Criticisms: implies substitutability (technology is the solution), assumes market is only legitimate method of valuation.  limitation: social equity=valuation difficult  *PASSING STOCKS TO FUTURE GENERATIONS*  CHALLENGE IS REDUCING CONSUMPTION OF NATURAL CAPITAL, LIVING OFF GENERATED FLOWS, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME NARROWINF THE POVERTY GAP* Resilience and Sustainability  Resilience: describes systems and their thinking- the ability of communities to weather crisis and ada
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