9 Transportation Systems & Planning Review.docx

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Department
Environment and Urban Sustainability
Course
EUS 202
Professor
Christopher Greene
Semester
Winter

Description
9 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING REVIEW Autombile Dependency  Peter Newman & Jeffrey Kenworthy (1980s)  Status quo was a focus on operational efficiency and convenience for motorists  Transportation management mainly focused on management of traffic – specifically rapid, efficient movement of vehicles One-way streets Signal synchronization Widening roads, freeways Initial improvements, but eventually congestion returns Longer commute times Reduced productivity Higher prices (effect of inflation on oil)  Beginning to see prioritization shift to integrating other modes of transportation  Land use planning has an important role to play in moving towards more sustainable approaches Hidden Costs of Car Dependency  Economic Roads and Parking Provision Building parking and highways diverts funds from other uses (tradeoffs) e.g. Healthcare, education, public transit Traffic Accidents Result in costs to government Expenditure for cleanup Lost economic activity (delays, congestion) Road Noise=less value of housing Low Fuel Taxes Decreasing Land Values, Housing Prices: Proximity to large-scale infrastructure (freeways, expressways) Congestion  Social Reduced Access to Key Services Placement of services accessible by car may have reduced access for other modes e.g. Healthcare, shopping, financial Marginalization of Vulnerable Groups Barriers for Pedestrians and Bicycles 9 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING REVIEW  Environmental Air Pollution from Vehicle Emissions Water Pollution Habitat Fragmentation Waste Disposal  Health Air Pollution Traffic Accidents property damage Healthcare Costs  Autocentric Communities Technological Fix or Paradigm Shift?  Reducing GHG emissions  New technologies (biodiesel, hybrids, electric, hydrogen fuel cells, ...)  Rather than new technology, improved use of existing systems can have the highest positive impacts Modifying the Existing System  Mobility: Focuses on movement as an end, not a means o Prioritizes solutions primarily to motorized modes of transportation o Minimizes land use considerations  Accessibility o Recognizes land use decisions can have an important effect o Decreased distances through can increase overall accessibility o Accessibility approach:  Considers potential alternatives to mobility  Telecommunications (telecommuting)  Improved delivery services  Benefits provided by dense, walkable communities with mixed land use o New strategies are needed: affordable/Technically feasible/Increase the options for individuals/remove unintended negative impacts) o Desired outcomes Reducing vehicle miles while Improving system benefits (quality of life) Reduced congestion 9 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING REVIEW Reduced capital expenditure on auto-centric infrastructure Reduced traffic accidents Energy conservation Pollution reduction Improved health (including overall fitness) Increasing urban density correlated with Decreasing per capita fuel consumption Decreasing per capita vehicle miles Increased per capita transit use  influences attractiveness: Parking availability (free vs. paid) Road provision (supply or availability) Use of non-motorized modes of transportation  Objectives: Land use Increasing density Focus on mixed land use Shift to transit oriented Private Transport Stabilize (and ideally reduce) car use Decrease priority on car-oriented infrastructure Public Transport Improving the quality of transit systems Expand the use of rail Non-motorized Transit Improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists Increase the attractiveness and thus number of people choosing these modes Modifying System: “Ped Sheds”  Newman & Kenworthy (2006) o focused on the benefits of urban density/Specifically energy consumption and vehicle miles  Ped sheds: Highly walkable areas around local centres and public transit nodes  Transit sheds: Ideally encompass about 3000 hectares around urban villages Car Dependent City to Transit City Transportation Management Strategies 9 TRANSPORTATION PLANNING REVIEW Transportation Demand Management (TDM)  Attempting to influence where, why, how, and even whether people travel through application of policies, programs, services, products  Proponents argue benefits: Communities Higher return on investment when put towards transit, walking, cycling, higher vehicle occupancy Improved air quality, less congestion, reduced healthcare costs Employers Lower parking costs Improved recruitment Lower turnover Individuals Increased choice and convenience Savings in time and money Health and fitness benefits  not a feasible or effective approach by transportation experts: o Perspective favours more technological approaches, supply increases o Wider roads, more parking capacity, improved vehicle design Transportation System Management  Increasing the person-carrying capacity of the transportation system without increasing physical road capacity  Passive approach: Allowing congestion to worsen in areas with high volumes of single occupancy vehicles  Active approach: HOV lanes, dedicated transit lanes, preferred parking for HOV, reduced tolls for HOV  Dedicated transit lanes can be more effective than HOV lanes Aligning Travel Priorities  Transportation uses scarce resources – mainly space that could have alternative uses  Space used for parking, road infrastructure could provide more value if used for alternative uses  Expanding infrastructure represents an important tradeoff of lost benefits  Many cities have recognized the costs of less-efficient, auto-centric
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