10 Land Use, Urban Form Part 1 Review.docx

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Environment and Urban Sustainability
EUS 202
Christopher Greene

LAND USE, URBAN FORM PART 1 Urban Sprawl: dispersed populations away from city centers pushing into rural areas  Inefficient, expansive urban land use  Low‐density, more dispersed population  Highly segregated activities  Post WWII (1945)  Blais & Roseland: o subsidization of car-centric transportation (includes infrastructure) o market failures: value of open space/green space; social cost of congestion o federal mortgage policies o zoning policies dictating separation of land use o minimum parking requirements for development  municipal development practices: o single-detached homes=$ o less efficient delivery of services & extensive infrastructure to support automobiles  Inner City Blight o compact core of city=>low-density suburban  Dynamics: o reduced accessibility o ^private/less public: negative effect on social capital The Cost of Sprawl  low density development=^local tax base  cost>benefits  Real Estate Research Corporation for US: The Costs of Sprawl (1974) examined community types o low density: ^$$$, environmental, natural resource consumption, personal o combo-mix o high density planned  Carruthers & Ulfarrson (2003) o per capita$ less with ^ density (-correlation) o ^ with spatial extent of urban area(+correlation)  national policy framework required & land use decisions  less active modes of transportation=^obesity/hypertension/weight  Characteristics of Active Neighborhoods: LAND USE, URBAN FORM PART 1 o Density: ^density=^pedestrians o Mixed Land Use: more services are closer o Investment in Pedestrian Infrastructure o scenery o safety Land Use and Transportation  landuse/transportation/energy use are interconnected  Compact/centralized areas: o ^intense land use=^jobs closer to homes o less car use=^advanced public transit o natural/legislated restraints on ^vehicle speeds  Low density: ^percapita ground level ozone ^per capita emissions ^per capita h2o use ^land requirements (loss of productive land to car land use) ^stormwater runoff ^heating/cooling $ ^$ of delivering services social $ less from vehicle time marginalization  change focus: land use planning guides transportation Street Layout & Connectivity  Dendritic: branch like system (post WWII) o cul-de-sac developments=move traffic to highway o few paths to arterial routes o some res away from traffic noise o safety/security o disadvantages:  ^commuting=^automobile dependence=congestion  push for ^roads/intersections = ^local traffic  day: empty res; night: empty com  less social contact/community building/social capital Interconnected Design 
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